Table of Contents
Plaster of walls – one of the most important stages of repair work allowing to receive almost ideally plain and vertical surfaces. Regardless of what as a result will cover walls – paint, wall-paper, tile or panels, all this will last long and will leave good external impression, only if the basis is equal and strong. And it is possible to reach it by means of plastering which quite feasible own hands.
So, why in general plaster is necessary and what it will give?
Stucco work is necessary for alignment of surface of walls across. The method of work on beacons is for this purpose used. Everything, established on one of walls, beacons have to adjoin the thread tense up and down easily. On the Internet has extended very many examples showing work without application of beacons. It is necessary to tell that such technology should not be used as without beacons it is absolutely impossible to sustain the uniform plane of the plastered surface. 2 or 3 meter rule will not help to level 7-10-meter wall with one plane. And if in wall there is door opening, then this task becomes especially impracticable.
The plaster executed on beacons will set to walls and ideal vertical level. It is important part for mounting of stretch ceilings, arrangement of furniture, etc. Also without beacons it is impossible to plaster and expose walls with considerable height.
Plaster will help to make absolutely equal width of door openings on both sides. Only in this case door cases will be established in relation to the plane of walls exactly.
Plaster allows to set room geometry, to receive the corners executed strictly under 90 degrees, to do parallel walls in narrow spaces. Besides, under plaster layer it is possible to hide the acting wires of electrical wiring, conditioning systems, etc.
High-quality plaster allows to save on putty, before pasting of wall-paper such walls do not demand considerable preparation.
Small roughnesses of walls can be eliminated by means of putty. However if they exceed 5 millimeters, the way will be too expensive. For this reason at first plaster of walls is carried out.
Than to plaster walls?
Plaster happens several types: plaster, cement – sand, cement – limy.
Each of them has both minuses, and pluses:
- Plaster. It is optimum for works in rooms. It is easy to use, it is strongly pasted to surface of walls. It is relevant if necessary thickness does not exceed 5 centimeters. If bigger alignment is necessary, then it is better to use covering of walls gypsum cardboard.
- Cement-limy. The best option of use – stucco work with big areas. Same, as well as plaster, warm, but its cost much cheaper.
- Cement-sand. Cold and heavy plaster. It is good only for plaster of facades. To work with it in rooms and inconveniently and economically it is not favorable.
Before starting works, it is necessary to consider some nuances which then will late correct.
Smooth plaster has to be applied with two, and even three layers. Limy and cement plaster – in one layer of necessary thickness. Then the surface is leveled by grater. At formation of hollows and roughnesses they are filled with solution and then urinate water and are rubbed clean. To receive more smooth plane, plaster can be wiped with the bar enveloped in cloth. In this case it is necessary to put one more layer in 4 millimeters, and when overwriting to sprinkle wall lime milk.
Often plaster becomes too “thin”. In this case prehension walls and plasters it will turn out very bad, and plaster will raise dust, wall-paper and paint will badly keep on such wall. The shortcoming knitting — limes becomes the reason.
In too time if to make solution too “greasy”, to add knitting more necessary, plaster of very bad quality will also turn out, it will begin to crack. Moisture will get into cracks and sooner or later the covering will begin to collapse.
It is impossible to apply cements of plaster on concrete surface. Plaster and cement will enter with each other interaction, there will be chemical reaction, plaster will be blown up, and then will disappear. To avoid similar effects the lime mortar with approximate thickness of 4 millimeters has to be applied on wall.
Also it is impossible to apply lime mortars on plaster surfaces. When drying plaster will extend, and solution will shrink, they will exfoliate from each other, as a result the outer layer will disappear.
Often plaster can be damaged at electric installation work. Therefore wires or tubes for them before plaster have to be placed in the grooves done in walls and are fixed by plaster. Also the wood inserts necessary for the suspender of illuminating equipment are fixed. Plaster very quickly grabs and receives necessary durability.
Mounting of the heating equipment when wiring through overlappings or when fastening to walls also happens using plaster. The biggest mistake – laying of heating pipes in overlappings or walls without upsetting plugs. Openings are closed up by plaster, but it remains only before the beginning of heating season. Pipes under the influence of heat begin to extend, plaster does not maintain pressure and cracks. Also, except the cracks caused by rise of temperature, pipes (if they not plastic, but metal) begin to rust if they are recorded by cement of plaster. Plaster absorbs moisture and transfers it to metal. It leads to emergence of the rusty spots appearing through whitewashing, and sometimes and to exit of pipes out of operation.
The plaster applied on walls becomes strong and hardens through certain time. If to try to accelerate this process, solution can crack and the surface will collapse. The second layer is put only after drying of the first, otherwise both layers can disappear from wall. Except heat for drying plaster needs the fresh air containing carbon dioxide. If it is not enough, then plaster will dry, but will not harden.
During re-planning the brick which was already used earlier can be used by the hands. And if the bricks which were once standing in chimney it get to such laying will cause emergence of brown spots from absorbed before tar and soot. Whitewashing or wall-paper will be damaged, and only replacement of such brick will help to improve situation.
Well plaster sticks to brick walls. And here the concrete surfaces which are especially executed by means of metal or wood form, more smooth and less moisture capacious. Therefore before concrete plaster, especially on combined steel concrete overlappings, the surface has to be it is moistened thin layer of liquid laitance — it will give necessary roughness. If not to make it, then afterwards plaster can exfoliate and disappear.
In overlappings metal beams are often used. In that case before putting finishing mortar, the concrete layer in 2-3 centimeters on the metal gauze is applied on beam.
The cement plaster can crack when it is ironed. The surface crusts from one cement. Shrinkage of top layer will exceed shrinkage of inside layers, plaster will crack and will disappear. Such plaster does not collapse if it is constant to moisten it.
Wooden surfaces are not plastered – to wood plaster does not stick. If it is necessary, walls from tree have to be sheathed by couple of layers of shingle.
Plaster is showered when it is applied on the frozen wall or if solution has frozen during drawing.
Application of armoring lattices and tapes
For togas to protect surface from cracks, armoring lattices and the reinforcing tapes are used. Their assignment – prevention of surface from local cracks, cracks on joints of panels, sheets gypsum cardboard, places of adjunction of ceilings and walls.
Grids increase mechanical strength and durability of the plastered areas. Represent the materials made on basalt basis or the vitreous fibers impregnated with alkaliproof structure intertwined in a special way. Without impregnation the term of their operation is not higher than 28 days. The cell of grid cannot be less than 5х5 millimeters. In the course of works the grid drowned (but it is not pasted!) in layer approximately on 5 millimeters. Cloths keep within about overlap 10 centimeters. After that the reinforced surface becomes covered by final plaster coat.
The reinforced films are made of the thermofastened cloth. Can be made from lavsan or polypropylene.
Someone can tell that primer of walls before covering their plaster is optional. It is possible to agree with it, but only if the end result not too concerns.
It is optional to ground external walls when using cement – sand mixes, in this case it is enough to moisten wall with water. But in all other options there should not be question whether use primer? Primer gets into basis and guarantees its excellent coupling with the following layer, eliminates basis defects.
Primers for plaster are separated into adhesive and strengthening. Can be provided as the dry mixes demanding addition of water or organic solvents, and already ready for use. Tools for putting primer can be different, the tool sometimes recommended is specified on packaging of specific structure.
- Adhesive primer is applied to strengthening of coupling between finishing layers. After their drawing even on smooth and ideally plain surface the strong hitch will be provided.
- The primer primer is used when strengthening layer before following is put.
Before thick plaster coats are put, primers of deep penetration are applied.
At different types of primer properties differ, but there are general functions:
- strengthening of the porous bases;
- uniform plaster drying;
- strengthening of coupling of layers;
- degreasing of surface and removal of dust;
- reduction of hygroscopicity of the basis.
Besides, primer increases coefficient of wear resistance and protects material from influence of the environment. They prevent slipping of plaster and improve its plasticity. One more important factor of use of primer – decrease in material consumption.
The choice of primer depends on degree of porosity of the basis. Primer with high adhesive properties will be suitable for the dense and low-porous bases. The friable, porous surface amplifies primer of deep penetration. Primers station wagons are suitable for walls with average porosity. The dense bases which are not absorbing moisture are processed by primers on mineral base.
Primer of walls
Priming is carried out on dry and clean surfaces. Primer can be applied:
- paint spray guns;
During causing structure paint spray gun the nozzle has to be perpendicularly to surface, move with circular motions. There should not be admissions or repeated drawing. Distance between nozzle and wall – 1 meter. If it increases or decreases, the primer consumption increases.
Putting soil brushes is made by the crossing movements, at first along walls, perpendicular to the basis, then vertically.
The roller at first is wrung out – rolled on tray, and then at an angle 45 ° is put to surface and rolled on it from top to down.
Plaster of walls the hands
Will be necessary for works:
- construction palette;
- plaster square;
- lighthouse profile;
- the mixer for preparation of construction mixes;
- level and plumb;
- abrasive paper.
First of all (even before priming) all speakers of part of solution between bricks have to be hit. After that, by means of the rule and level, there is point which is most acting on wall. In this place thickness of plaster will recede approximately on 5 millimeters that the bases. Taking into account this value the maximum thickness of plaster which is necessary for alignment of wall is calculated. At thickness indicator over admissible for one layer (30 millimeters), it is necessary to plaster wall in several layers.
At once all wall will not manage to be leveled therefore its area has to be separated approximately into meter sites by means of beacons. Beacons can be exposed from the most acting place or from corner. The beacon can be metal or solution. Let’s consider creation of the last.
In net capacity water is poured and the mix chosen for plaster is filled up. The ratio of water and mix depends on the chosen material. All this is stirred by drill with the special mixer. As a result the homogeneous consistence which is left for several minutes has to turn out and again it is stirred. Solution prepares at the rate of the volume necessary for 20-30 minute works. Otherwise the excess of solution will begin to grab.
Solution to the place of future beacon is applied with spatula. Strip width – about 2 centimeters from each party. Solution is leveled by the rule.
By means of level the vertical and horizontal is leveled. Excesses of solution clean up the rule on both sides, the ready beacon as a result turns out. In the same way all other beacons prepare.
After the prepared beacons dry up, according to the instruction solution for plaster prepares. Between beacons on the site of 50 centimeters mix snatches. The outlined layer has to exceed height of beacons.
By the way, plaster snatches on wall, is pressed into it by impact strength, so it fills any hollows and cracks.
After drawing layer on the site surrounding the beacon on other beacons this layer is extended by the rule up. Excesses of solution are removed the palette and attack back. All area of wall is in the same way plastered. If the armoring lattice (that is desirable), then after its cave-in it is necessary to put atop one more, unreliable thick, plaster coat is used. Therefore it is necessary to calculate at what moment to use grid. Process of plaster in itself of walls not difficult even for those who never performed similar work. It is very important that plaster prior to the following works has finally dried and has hardened
After drawing all plaster coats and its drying it is necessary to level the remained roughnesses. It becomes by means of finishing putty. It can be applied steel with spatula or sputtering method. Before drawing finishing putty plaster has to be grounded. The method of primer is chosen independently and depends on the chosen material.
The putty also prepares from dry mix and water according to the instruction of the producer and mixes up drill to homogeneous mass. The received solution can be used during rather long time (about 24 hours). On the working palette solution keeps within other, small palette. The working palette is put to wall at an angle approximately in 60 °, carried out along surface. The putty is distributed evenly, the tilt angle of the palette gradually decreases. In order that solution was applied more evenly, horizontal dabs have to alternate with vertical. Excesses of putty act and used again.
Approximately in 24 hours, after final drying of putty, the wall can be sanded or special grid on grinding bar, or normal abrasive paper. Grinding is made by circular motions.
After the end of grinding, the wall ready for any further finishing turns out.
It is necessary to consider what finishing will be finishing. So, for example, decorative plaster does not demand putty and grindings – she will hide small roughnesses of walls.