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Porcelain tile is stone-porcelain tile which differs in high utilization properties and enjoys wide popularity in construction. Porcelain tile for the street frost-resistant is applied to facing of facades, production of steps and with other purposes. The choice and mounting of material demand knowledge of its versions and their differences from each other, nuances of work with them.
Types of porcelain tile
This material has appeared in the market relatively recently, but already has managed to win great popularity among buyers. Use of frost-resistant porcelain tile of the Italian and Spanish production is considered sign of good taste and welfare. Material has appeared as alternative to natural stone, but modern models of tile can imitate different options of surfaces.
Distinguish the following main types of porcelain tile:
- technical – strong and reliable, but not differing in special attractiveness of exterior. The technical tile costs rather not much and is applied to facing of industrial premises and technical zones;
- opaque – is characterized by unglazed surface. Use of opaque porcelain tile is favorable to the street that this kind of material differs in the high level of durability, but behind such tile regular leaving as on its surface easily there are traces is necessary;
- polished – possesses characteristic high luster, is most often used for facing of facades and other vertical surfaces. It is not recommended to use the polished tile for facing of floor or steps as over time the covering is erased, and the tile becomes opaque;
- glazed – surface of this kind of porcelain tile becomes covered with special glaze which adds it unique gloss. Such porcelain tile for the street can be stylized under different materials, have different color and the drawing. It is better to use it for finishing of walls and other surfaces which will not be exposed to heavy load;
- satined – porcelain tile on which surface the layer of mineral salt is applied. After roasting such tile can brag of velvety surface structure. It is used with the decorative purposes;
- structured – one more decorative version which can look as products from natural stone, tree, leather and other materials.
Each of types of tile has the advantages and shortcomings, and it is worth choosing depending on your requirements and features of operation of material.
Helpful advice! One of the main criteria for selection of porcelain tile under stone for the street is the maximum load on material. Therefore first of all it is necessary to make a start from this parameter, and after already to consider other characteristics.
Characteristics and advantages of porcelain tile
One of the main advantages of tile of porcelain tile before other facing materials is the its increased density and durability.
It considerably exceeds normal ceramic tile on utilization properties and differs in the following features:
- frost resistance – ability it is easy to transfer low temperatures is one of the main advantages of frost-resistant porcelain tile to the street. It is possible to buy such material for use at temperature to – 50 °C therefore it is favorable to apply it to use on open space. Besides, this material with firmness transfers temperature drops;
- resistance to wear – tile well resists to scratches, chips and other mechanical damages that allows to use with identical efficiency it for finishing of steps, porch, floor in the house and other surfaces which often are exposed to heavy mechanical loads. Life cycle of antiskid frost-resistant street porcelain tile makes about 7 years and more;
- low level of moisture pick-up – the tile from porcelain tile does not absorb at all moisture therefore it can be used safely at any indicators of humidity;
- shock resistance – on the surface revetted with porcelain tile it is possible to drop heavy subject without fear that the covering will sustain damage. At the same time the thicker tile, the more its resilience to blows therefore porcelain tile thickness indicators for porch on the street have to be rather high.
All these advantages do porcelain tile by great option for use as facing material for the most different surfaces. He is not afraid of frost and heat, well transfers heavy loads and can serve to you for many years without loss of attractiveness of exterior.
As it is correct to choose porcelain tile
At material selection it is necessary to pay attention to number of important points. One of primary is producer of tile. The level of quality therefore it is worth giving preference to the Italian models depends on the producer. They are more expensive, than porcelain tile of domestic production, but also differ in higher utilization properties.
The second most important parameter of tile is availability of non-skid surface. Purchase of antiskid porcelain tile for the street will ensure to you safety as when using slippery surface it is easily possible to be traumatized. The qualitative tile has to be rough to lower injury risk even when soaking. Besides, it is necessary to sand too smooth tile often and other anti-sliding materials that can lead to fast loss of attractiveness of its exterior.
Use of antiskid frost-resistant porcelain tile anti-slip is more favorable to the street, than application of seamy surfaces. The last not so slide as smooth, but are much more difficult cleaned from dirt and are quickly erased, take unattractive exterior.
There are several kinds of nonskid frost-resistant porcelain tile in wear resistance parameter:
- PEI I, II – the low wear resistance, is recommended to apply to facing of vertical surfaces or floor on which the heavy load is not supposed;
- PEI III – the average level of wear resistance, it is the best of all to use in premises with the movement of small intensity;
- PEI IV – the good wear resistance, can be applied in public buildings;
- PEI V – the maximum level of stability.
The choice of exterior of antiskid frost-resistant porcelain tile for the street and also the size of tile depends only on your taste. The price for m ² porcelain tile for facade or for steps depends on the producer and can vary with very broad range.
Besides, when choosing it is necessary to consider number of additional parameters of material. The caliber – difference between the size specified on packaging with material and its real dimensions belongs to them, for example. This difference can make up to 0.5 mm and is of great importance when facing floor or walls.
It is possible to check level of quality of tile rather simply. For this purpose it is necessary to evaluate its weight. For example, the tile of frost-resistant porcelain tile for the street of 30х30 cm 8-9 mm thick has to weigh about 2 kg. If the weight of material is less, it means that the producer has saved on quality and such tile will quickly fail.
Features of the choice of porcelain tile under stone
The porcelain tile with stylization of natural stone enjoys the greatest popularity therefore it is very important to know how to choose this kind of material. There are options stylized under granite, marble, onyx, sandstone, jasper, basalt and many other breeds of stones. They are widely applied to production of steps for ladders from porcelain tile, facing of facades and with other purposes.
Two options of imitation of natural stone are the most widespread. It is exact imitation and art scenery. The first option in accuracy repeats the drawing and the invoice of natural mineral, and the second is characterized by availability of decorative additives. Gold veins, stylization of petroglyphic painting and so on belong to them. For example, it is possible to find set of similar options in the catalog of porcelain tile of Kerama Marazzi.
Advantages of marbled porcelain tile and under travertine
Natural marble and travertine are some of the most popular materials for imitation. It is very difficult to distinguish imitation of the last from the original even for the specialist as the tile completely repeats color and texture of material. With artificial marble everything is slightly more difficult, it is very similar to natural, but has no that depth of black color which characterizes natural stone. At the same time the tile of the big size looks better, for example, laying of marble steps from porcelain tile for the street with use of tile of 1200х600 mm will better look, than 600х600.
Material laying subtleties
Laying of porcelain tile on technology differs from mounting of normal ceramic tile. When laying porcelain tile on the street you should not use construction mixes on the basis of cement, and it is better to use special glue.
If it is about finishing of facade, method of laying can be two:
- Laying on special glue.
- Fastening by means of brackets or self-tapping screws.
The choice of way of fastening of material depends on many factors. Here weather conditions, type of construction and other parameters belong. Each of above-mentioned ways has nuances.
The choice of frost-resistant glue for porcelain tile for outside works, nuances of use
As it has been already told, when finishing surfaces porcelain tile it is impossible to use normal construction mixes on the basis of cement. Especially for fastening of this material there is set of types of specialized glue.
When choosing glue for laying of porcelain tile on the street or indoors it is necessary to pay attention to its following characteristics:
- Clay shall create strong layer between sheets of material and surface. Besides, he has to maintain heavy load.
- The gluing mix has to have high level of stability to moisture, otherwise the covering can be deformed from humidity and temperature drops.
- If laying of such material as porcelain tile, on the street is planned, glue for this purpose has to differ in good resistance to high temperatures.
- The frost resistance of glue also has to be at the high level.
- The elasticity is one more important property of glue for porcelain tile.
Helpful advice! As a rule, for each of types of rooms and also for interior and external finish different grades of construction glue are necessary. Of course, there are also universal options, but they will be to you considerably more expensive.
All types of the gluing structures for porcelain tile can be separated into three categories:
- mixes with use of the plasticizer.
Feature of single-component frost-resistant glue for porcelain tile is that it is possible to work with it at once after purchase. It differs in the high level of elasticity and also long time of hardening. Thanks to the last quality you can glue large number of tile at once, without being afraid at the same time that glue will stiffen.
Two-component mixes are called so because upon purchase you receive two components of glue mix. Just before drawing on surface components need to be mixed by means of the special mixer. The two-part adhesive hardens quicker, but also differs in the bigger durability and elasticity.
Plasticizers in glue mix promote increase in its elasticity and prolong the term of its operation. If you need quality glue for finishing of facade porcelain tile, cement mix with plasticizers are your option.
Facing by porcelain tile by means of glue: recommendations
Different glue mixes are suitable for use in different conditions. For example, for finishing of walls and floor in rooms with the increased level of humidity it is better to choose moisture resistant structure, and for rooms with big intensity of the movement – structure with high characteristics of durability. It will allow not to allow shrinkages and to prolong covering life cycle.
And here when using technology of laying of porcelain tile on the street it is better to use frost-resistant and heat-resistant mixes which well transfer influence of moisture and direct sunshine. If you do not want that steps, the path or facade with covering from porcelain tile have cracked after few months of operation, it is better to use glue with the increased durability and elasticity.
Consider also that the more the tile size, the bigger amount of glue needs to be used for its fastening. Proceeding from the tile size thickness of glue layer is also calculated. By the way, parameters of the palette which is used for putting glue also depend on the expected thickness of layer. The layer is thicker, the palette is more.
Finishing of facade frost-resistant porcelain tile
Facing of facade of the building plates from porcelain tile gives you number of advantages:
- attractive exterior – exists set of options of exterior of plates of porcelain tile therefore when finishing you can use the design imagination at full capacity. And, for example, during creation of hinged facade from porcelain tile for office construction you receive respectable building image which will speak to all visitors about solidity of your firm;
- protection against humidity – during creation of the ventilated facade from porcelain tile turns out natural ventilation. Thanks to it in the building the mold or pathogenic bacteria does not accumulate, and in cold season they do not freeze through. All this promotes significant life extension of construction;
- heat insulation – the ventilated facade allows to reduce heatlosses of all building. It means that in warm season they will not overheat, and in cold the air layer will allow to reduce heat waste and, respectively, expenses on heating of the room;
- durability – if you are going to buy frost-resistant porcelain tile for the street of production of Russia, it is worth knowing that this material is characterized by wear resistance, durability, resistance to temperature drops and also does not demand special leaving in use. The price of frost-resistant porcelain tile for the street of 600х600 cm will be above, than at other finishing materials of the similar size, but it is compensated by high utilization properties;
- high level of noise isolation – in combination with air layer of plate of porcelain tile rooms perfectly protect from external noise;
- the fire resistance – porcelain tile is non-combustible material. Besides to class also other elements of the ventilated facade belong;
- simplicity of mounting – material is light in laying, and it is possible to carry out it at all seasons of the year regardless of weather patterns. At the same time laying of plates of porcelain tile is made quickly enough;
- opportunity to disguise roughnesses of walls without the need for additional stucco work.
Components of the ventilated facade from porcelain tile and its mounting
At rather high price of the ventilated facade from porcelain tile for m² you get large amount of advantages which finishing by other construction materials will not be able to give.
Any facade consists of the following elements:
- the load bearing wall – acts as support for design;
- the underface wall – serves as intermediate design between load bearing wall, heat-insulation layer and plates of finishing material. Consists of brackets which fasten to wall by means of dowels and anchors, the bearing profiles and special elements of fixture;
- the heat-insulation and sound-proof layer – protects walls from temperature drops, possible heat distortion and also the room from external noise;
- vapor barrier layer – special film which does not allow to settle on walls to condensate and promotes its evaporation;
- air layer – interval between heater and plates of facing material. Serves for removal of moisture;
- porcelain tile plates – protect all previous layers from negative natural impacts and also perform decorative function.
Helpful advice! There are several options of fastening of frame system to load bearing wall. It is necessary to choose from them that which best of all approaches in your specific conditions.
The most popular way of fastening of porcelain tile to frame system is combined. It means that the framework is mounted at the same time from horizontal and vertical guides. At the same time at first it is possible to establish either horizontal, or vertical. The first way allows to distribute evenly loading, but is rather expensive therefore it is used not especially often.
The way at which at first vertical guides are mounted is effective when using thick plates of porcelain tile and allows not only to reduce load of design, but also to hide way of fastening.
The type of seams between plates of finishing material can differ also. The visible seam is the simplest option and means fastening of plates by means of self-tapping screws, screws or rivets through special sealants. Laying without seams means uses of the concealed fixing.
Distinguish several it options:
- Mechanical – at such way from rear side of plate is drilled opening under dowel. Usually for mechanical fastening material plates with already ready openings are used.
- By means of glue – material is pasted to vertical profile. This way allows to reduce mounting time, but it is impossible to dismantle already pasted (for example, for replacement) plate.
- The combined fastening – is carried out as well as mechanical, but only on two points and with glue use. At such way the more the plate size, the is more expenses on mounting.
- By means of pins – openings for fastening are drilled in horizontal end faces into which special pins are inserted. Pins fasten to special adjustable brackets which are attached to load bearing wall. Such option excludes use of horizontal or vertical guides.
Application of any of above-mentioned ways of fastening takes a little time and also allows to create the qualitative and beautiful facade which is not needing additional leaving.
Porcelain tile for the street frost-resistant: mounting of steps from porcelain tile
For production of steps from porcelain tile it is necessary to understand that all design has to have number of qualities. First, it has to be safe. For this purpose the optimum height of steps has to be about 15-20 cm, and width of 25-30 cm. Secondly, at production of steps for porch from porcelain tile it is necessary to consider that material will be often affected by moisture therefore should not slide. Thirdly, exterior and design of steps has to be in harmony with exterior of all building.
As laying of material distinguish the following options of steps:
- Monolithic – integral plates, each of which is step. The traditional size of such steps from porcelain tile – 1200х300 mm. Massive treads are characterized by the increased durability and attractive look, though cost expensive.
- The national teams – are made of several plates of the average size. Mounting of such steps can be carried out in the sutural or seamless way. For finish of seams of porcelain tile on the street the normal palette is used, and the seam can perform decorative function.
Besides, on way of processing also distinguish several types of steps from porcelain tile.
You can buy the following options:
- the polished steps – differ in the high level of smooth surface of surface which is 80%;
- underpolished – the smooth surface is 25%, are usually applied on the street;
- polished – are good the fact that they thanks to opaque surface do not slide from moisture, are characterized by high friction coefficient;
- glazed – combine the high level of smooth surface and non-skid surface. Are equally effectively used in rooms and on open space.
Helpful advice! Glazed plates are suitable for use in rooms with the low level of passability better. For ladders and other places where heavy traffic and heavy load is supposed, it is better to use the opaque or polished option.
Facing of steps porcelain tile
When laying steps approximately identical operations procedure is made of porcelain tile 1200х300 with kapinos or other options of steps:
- The surface of the main steps becomes covered with acrylic primer that allows to improve coupling between facing material and the ladder. Roughnesses of steps are leveled by means of putty.
- In need of plate of finishing material are cut. It is possible to carry out cutting of porcelain tile in house conditions by means of different tools.
- Prepares and then glue solution is applied on steps. Drawing is carried out by means of the toothed palette.
- Material plates keep within. It is better to begin laying with upper steps. At first horizontal, and then vertical elements keep within.
- Corners of steps are processed by means of plastic or metal corner.
- Seams between plates are filled with grouting solution and smoothed out.
The price of porcelain tile steps for ladders depends on type, the size and other characteristics of material.
Features of hydroabrasive cutting of porcelain tile and other ways of processing
Often when mounting porcelain tile material should be cut. It is possible to do it in the different ways. For example, it is possible to use the special machine for porcelain tile cutting. It can be electric or manual and allows to cut solid material accurately. In the machine special disks for cutting of porcelain tile with diamond sputtering are used.
It is worth understanding that by means of the machine it is convenient to cut plate on large parts, and here for cutting figured products you need laser or hydroabrasive cutting. The first way is carried out by means of special industrial lasers, and the second is water jets with abrasive materials. Hydroabrasive cutting is cheaper, than laser, but at the same time allows to receive good result.
For use of hydroabrasive cutting you also need the special machine, but with its help you can receive thin ornaments or refined patterns from porcelain tile plates.
Porcelain tile not without reason is one of the most demanded finishing materials in the modern market. He can brag of high utilization properties, variety of options of design and simplicity in mounting. Choosing finishing as porcelain tile, you choose quality, reliability and attractive exterior.