Table of Contents
Repair of any house begins with arrangement of floors. Especially relevant it in the old house. In most cases much more simply and cheaper to make new floors, than to repair old. Despite the seeming expense of production of new floors, repair of old will cost not cheaper. Plus to it, various problems with the old foundation in the future.
In old houses it is possible to meet, generally floors of three types:
- Wooden on logs,
- Wooden panel board, laid on base charge.
In turn we will consider all options of floors and possibility of the solution of problems.
If the filled-in plate is in good condition, does not collapse and has no cracks, then repair is necessary to it minimum. It is enough to make tie on level and all. If concrete decomposition (it begins to bear a strong resemblance to the stamped sand) is observed or there are breaks, then alteration is simply necessary. In the first case cement has been saved or it was bad quality, in the second – incorrectly made basis. It is possible to remove old filling by means of sledge hammer or pick hammer. Big problems should not arise. Not condensed concrete very easily breaks, and about the plasticizer then also did not hear.
Before filling in new plate, it is worth deciding what “pie” will become as it is possible to warm floors in several ways. Anyway, it is necessary to do the basis. Its level and structure depend on option of warming and thickness of filling.
- Floor on “gas-silicate pillow”.
At first soil in the base is leveled and stamped. Then the sandy pillow, 12 – 15 cm thick is filled. The pillow from clean sand is required to be spilled water and to stamp, but it is possible to make use of experience of laying of paving slabs. Sand mixes up with cement in proportion 7 to 1, at water minimum. Prepares, so-called, Sukhoi solution. Its consistence reminds wet sand, that is it is easily scattered in hands. But when smoothing by its trowel, water from above acts, and the surface begins to remind normal solution. It is filled by layer of 15 cm. Then the layer needs to be condensed. It can be done by means of wooden bar and sledge hammer as vibro the machine costs expensive. The bar with a section 10 at 15 cm and length will be required to the equal width of the room. The bar keeps within on charge and is taped by sledge hammer on all length. If the bar drowned below required level, then it is poured in this place still mixes, or we delete it otherwise. It will be useful to notice that all dumping needs to be done on level. Then the layer of gas-silicate blocks keeps within. The way of their laying is identical to work with paving slabs. Each block precipitates mall. It is necessary to tap through wooden laying as gas-silicate can be damaged easily. After consolidation of this layer, the concrete tie 12 – 15 cm thick is filled in. This way to find with some difficulty in construction reference books. It has appeared from desire to save and economic view of residues of building materials. Despite non-standard of the decision, this option of warming of floors not bad works.
- Concrete floor with heat-insulating layer
For this type of floors the basis prepares without cement addition. Optimum material for dumping is gravel (sand-and-shingle mix), but in the majority of places it is unavailable. Therefore sand with addition of small crushed stone is applied. Dumping becomes not less than 15 cm thick. After consolidation, on it the concrete layer about 12 – 15 cm is filled in. Then filling is left before full drying. The following step is flooring of layer from penopleks. On top it the tie 6 – 8 cm thick with reinforcing by steel grid becomes.
At production of concrete floors it is necessary to exclude their connection with walls, except the finishing leveling tie. For this purpose the layer of penopleks between filling and wall suffices. It should not be taken after solution hardening.
Very seldom repair of wooden floors consists in replacement of couple of boards or begun to rot logs. Usually it comes to an end with the device of new floors that is the best option. Therefore, beginning repair, it is worth being to it ready. Before beginning work it is desirable to check condition of floors. The damages put with insects happen infrequently and carry, usually, local character. In this case it is possible to manage replacement of elements. It is worse if fungus traces are found. It can destroy floor for few years. In this case it is better to replace completely floor and parts of felling on which there are traces of damages. Other elements need to be processed the means interfering development of fungus. However, it should be made also with new parts. The fungus demonstrates insufficient ventilation. Frequent mistake is the belief that outlets in the base lead to freezing of floor. On the contrary, they promote drying-out of space under the house, and additional air layer under floor quite good barrier to cold. If in the base there are no outlets, then it is desirable to make them, having provided possibility of overlapping them for the winter. Idle time of valve can be insufficiently. It is possible to use the tarpaulin bag filled with the foam crumb (balls). Outlets are arranged so that there was free channel of air under the house.
Wooden floors also should not contact walls. Their basis are the logs leaning on the base or on sole wreath. If after opening of floors it is found out that the base is made aflush with walls, then it is necessary to lay out or fill in basic curbstones in addition. They are done on base driving depth, connecting to it pieces of the armature inserted into the openings drilled in the base. Openings are drilled at an angle to surface. Logs have to lean only the ends. It is impossible to do additional curbstones in the middle, excepting the full-fledged base. Because of sag difference, freely standing curbstone can lead to buckling of floors.
Section log is chosen proceeding from width of flight and distance between them. On sale there is floorboard from 28 to 40 mm thick therefore the distance between logs becomes within one meter, from 0.8 to 1.2 m. Then section will be (flight width – section logs): 2 m – 8 by 12 cm, 3 m – 10 by 15 cm, 4 m – 10 by 20 cm, 5 m – 15 by 20 cm, 6 m – 15 by 25 cm. For production log it is possible to use integral bar or boards 50 mm thick sewed together. For warming floor becomes double. Sideways log, below, cranial bars are beaten. On them draft floor is laid. Any material – the croaker, sub-standard board, etc. will go to it. It is necessary to meet only a few conditions: on material there should not be traces of decay, visible infection with insects and when laying it is necessary to delete residues of bark carefully. On draft floor vapor isolation is laid and heater keeps within. It is possible to use any kinds of mineral wool. It, however, has one unpleasant feature – it well absorbs water and holds it. Therefore, after break of water supply system, it is necessary to open completely floors and to change heater. It can be avoided partially if to use haydite. Vapor waterproofing under it is not laid, and water freely passes through. At this option it is necessary to use thicker logs or to reduce distance between them. After flooring of finished floor it is left in such view of some time for alignment of humidity of floorboard. Perhaps, it should be re-made for removal of slots. While floor is stood, it is possible to conduct finishing of walls. At wooden floors of wall it is better to plaster as it is undesirable to tie to them furring under gypsum cardboard. For further assembling of floor coverings, the finished floor is dimmed by veneer sheets or RSD.
Contrary to ordinary opinion, it is easy to lay tile on wooden floor. For this purpose on plates of RSD waterproof gypsum cardboard not less than 12 mm thick keeps within, and carefully is fixed by self-tapping screws. Its surface is processed by impregnation and on it the tile is pasted. Under gypsum cardboard it is possible to lay infrared heat-insulated floor. For finish of gaps between tile, in this case, it is better to use silicone. It is elastic and creates big tightness of seams.
Wooden panel board floors
It is better to replace such floors at the first opportunity. The term of their operation is limited only to firmness of wood, but something acceptable cannot be made with them. It is possible to leave this option with base charge, but logs have to lean on the base, but not on charge. It is not obligatory to do draft floors, it is only necessary to arrange air layer between floor and charge. Outlets are not necessary too. This way fast and inexpensive, but very is of a lower quality than the first two.