Table of Contents
The main part of the low inhabited sector is made by houses of old construction. Very often the term of their operation is more than 50 years. It is natural that there is need of major repair. On the first place, on the termination of life cycle, there is roof. Its repair – process costly and labor-consuming, but, having some skills of work with tree and metal, all works can be performed by own efforts.
Will be necessary for work:
- set of the carpenter’s tool,
- the small angle grinder machine, for cutting of metal tile,
- the cordless screwdriver (it is very inconvenient and dangerous to move on roof, moving for itself drill cable),
- strong cord,
- big Mulka.
Mulka is the two rails pivotally connected since one end with possibility of fixing in the divorced state. Rails have to be not less than a meter long.
Main terminology of elements of roof
The roof consists of rafter system and roof. The rafter system represents number of the roof frames connected by furring.
- feet of a rafter – inclined bars on which furring is laid,
- the crossbar – connects legs among themselves, in their middle part,
- tightening – connects the basic ends of legs,
- inferior purlin – bar on which rafters lean,
- block – strut between crossbar and upper connection of rafters,
- knee brace – the additional prop of foot of a rafter leaning on floor beam.
Calculation of necessary materials
Let’s consider repair of roof on the example of Italian roof of hip type. It is the unequalateral roof having the fad. Edge slopes are called hipped ends.
First of all, we examine rafter system from within, regarding detection of damages and the decayed elements. It is better to replace the begun to rot elements, but if damages are insignificant, then it is possible to leave them on site, having in addition strengthened wooden pads from two parties. Pads are sewed with beam the nails passing through through all package. The elements infected with fungus or insects are replaced unambiguously. Proceeding from all this, the necessary quantity of bar is counted. If the roof is in good condition, then is inexpedient to replace rafter system. Optimal variant – to lay new furring, without removing old. For this purpose boards with a section 100 at 25 mm and not less than 6 m long will be required. Average consumption of this material: 1.5 CBM on 100 sq.m of roof.
For replacement of roof it is better to choose metal tile or metalprofile. Simplicity of mounting, durability and small weight, do them irreplaceable at repair of the old house. Life cycle of these types of roof is identical, but decision-making is influenced by financial side of question. The metal tile looks more beautifully, but its price is higher and, at covering of roofs of irregular shapes, the big percent of material goes to scraps. The metalprofile can be calculated so that there will practically be no waste left. Two half, the leaf cut at an angle, are mounted on opposite slopes of roof.
The firms specializing in trade in roofing material usually, free of charge render services of measurements and computer calculation of roof. In the absence of such opportunity, it is easy to make all calculations most.
Try to measure old roof rather precisely. Then the dimensioned drawing becomes. The greatest values of measurements are accepted to basic sizes. Assume as a basis that the opposite sides have to be identical. When calculating consider distance from wall to edge of roof. It has to make not less than 30 cm. If you do not plan installation of water waste system, then this overhang will not allow the flowing-down water to get on walls. This correction should be made at once, at measurement of width of slope. The drawing of slopes symmetrically breaks into strips 1.1 m wide, according to the scale as the standard width of flashing sheet – 1.15 m. On the lock 5 cm are taken away. It is desirable to recheck the sizes of future material. There can be differences from the provided digits. Lengths of strips are defined by simple measurement. All doubts, in measurement accuracy, are treated towards increase in length of leaf. It is quite good to add to length of 10 – 15 cm. After installation of new furring, roof dimensions considerably will increase. The quantity of skates undertakes proceeding from their length. Usually it is 2 m. On overlapping of each joint 20 cm are added.
Dismantling of old roof
The old covering is required to be removed completely, together with any elements of filing. Especially it belongs to filing of pediment. Having removed it, we get access to the hidden parts of rafters. In box the garbage accumulates, there could sweep up snow, in it hit of the flowing-down condensate is probable – all this could lead to unpleasant effects. It is better to make detailed survey and necessary repair, and then to file pediment material in tone to roof.
Mounting of furring
From roof ridge the most upper boards of old furring are removed and are sewed new, with small departure in the parties. The upper edges of boards connect among themselves, and the joint is exposed precisely on level. The flooring of furring is begun with big slopes. We attach inclined boards, future support of horizontal ranks to the fad. The distance between them should not be more than 1 m. It is desirable that support were established over rafters. From the fad slope width, taking into account necessary space from wall is measured. Carried out on the lower ends of inclined boards, the line, has to be parallel to the fad. We expose the ends of the boards lying along joints of slopes on hydrolevel. Point of alignment is the line of future machine cut. Further, having pulled cord on the line, we expose the ends of other support. Then we level support. On extreme boards, it is better to establish supports in places of fastening of missing short support. It will facilitate their mounting. Excesses are longwise cut off right after alignment. All slopes are in this way prepared.
The following step – laying of waterproofing. Its main objective: protection of attic-floor room or heater against condensate. It is laid horizontally, without excessive stretch. Overlapping of joints is not less than 20 cm. To furring the waterproofing fastens the stapler.
The last stage – mounting of horizontal ranks. The first lower two rows fasten next to each other. On them fastening of otliv will be established. Gleams in furring under metalprofile can be up to 30 cm. The distance between rails under metal tile undertakes equal to width of the pro-thinned-out row. That is: if width of tile number of 350 mm, then and distance between centers of the next boards there have to be 350 mm. Under horizontal rails, between support, it is necessary to establish supports too. It is necessary to connect boards in the same row on support. Try not to allow several connections in a row. It can affect at heavy snow load.
Mounting of roof
Mounting begins to be conducted from corner so that the following sheet laid down on previous. It is possible to stack metal tile and vice versa. The difficulty will be in lock slipping under the laid leaf. But the stacked leaf should not be held in the course of fastening. The corner between bottom edge of furring and joint of slopes is removed Mulka and is precisely transferred to leaf. Do not forget to consider the lock at marking, otherwise it is possible to damage the sheet. The marking and cutting of material are carried out on the earth. You should not listen to councils that sheets can be cut off after mounting. It will not simplify work and will not add accuracy, but with ease will lead to injury.
Choosing roofing self-tapping screws, pay attention to drill on the end. There are two types of self-tapping screws with drill: metal – tree and metal – metal. At the second the drill is almost equal on diameter to the self-tapping screw. Be accurate, attracting washer with silicone sealant. Silicone should not be flattened out, only slightly contract.
The metalprofile fastens in every third lower wave. Longwise the distance between self-tapping screws is chosen from 60 to 90 cm. The metal tile fastens under ledge of upper row. Fastening frequency: on width and in length – through row. Be not afraid to install excess fixture. The type of roof will not spoil it, but will save from iron roar at wind.
Installation of skates
Skates fasten to roof metal. You should not try to fasten them to furring. It will cause deformation of skates and deterioration in exterior. For mounting accuracy, it is desirable to make template. In the sheet of cardboard the cut repeating corner of joint of slopes becomes. The fad finishes at the corner, and on template marks of position of wings of the fad become. Marks from template are transferred to roof, in the ends of joint. By means of cord, the lines connecting marks beat off. On them skates are fixed. At first in several places. After visual inspection of flatness and necessary corrections, thorough fastening is made. The acting excesses are cut off by scissors after mounting.
Installation of water waste system
It is better to make mounting of water waste system on the attached instruction. At different producers connections and elements can differ. The basic principles at all are identical.
Water drainage are established on the brackets attached to furring before mounting of roof. It is possible to establish them later if there is no filing of pediment. In furring, in the place of fastening of bracket, openings under bolts are drilled. Then the bracket is put and on it places of drilling are noted. In these points openings are drilled, and the thread is cut. For simplification of this operation, it is enough to unscrew from roof of two first of the row of self-tapping screws.
Components of modern systems, allow to establish rain water pipes in any place and on any removal from wall. Therefore it is not necessary to carry out special preparatory work.
Filing of pediment
For filing, usually, the metalprofile painted in color of roof is chosen. The basis of framework is formed by the board pieces fixed to wall and to furring support. Boards the foundations are laid by edge. On them, from support, the upper corner as vertical part of filing of 4 – 5 cm is cut off. To attach basis to support and wall, it is better by means of metal corners. Then, along wall and edge of support, rails are fastened. The metalprofile is attached to them. The outer edge is closed by corner. Once you specify the sizes of the corner available shop and opportunity to make it to order in advance. All this influences the framework sizes. In house corners filing is joined at an angle 45 °. For scenery of joint there is connection level.