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Planning repair, seldom who thinks of need of replacement of electrical wiring for the apartment. However if the age of your house has already stepped over digit 20, once it is puzzled with question, and the wire has the working resource which is developed over time. Of course, works with electricity should be entrusted the professional, but on the other hand – replacement of electrical wiring with the hands not particularly complex occupation, especially if in memory there were basic laws from school course of physics.
When wiring needs replacement
The electrical wiring fails gradually. Also it is possible to be prepared beforehand for difficult repair works if to pay attention to strong indications of malfunctions. Here belong:
- Emergence in the house of non-working sockets;
- The increased fragility of aluminum wires when carrying out the current works with electric devices (replacement of lamps, switches, sockets);
- Sparking at turning on of electric devices;
- Emergence of smell of fake plastic.
The age of the house is considered also indirect sign. And as life cycle of aluminum wires is equal to ten-twenty years, after this time, wiring should be changed for new.
The main problem when replacing wiring in the house is that cosmetic and even major repairs become step by step – at first one room, then another. It is necessary to change wires at once on all apartment – the safety measures so demand. But even prior to works it is worth taking care of scheduling.
Plan of electrical wiring of the apartment
Without competently made scheme to begin any manipulations there is no sense. Electricity loves thoroughness in everything and to do “by eye” here it will not turn out. That the plan of electrical wiring as much as possible corresponded to the real situation, it needs to be carried out in scale, previously having measured all walls and having drawn the drawing of all apartment (house).
On the plan it will be required to specify arrangement of all distribution groups and also single skeleton diagram where all order of connection of devices will be specified.
The distribution group represents chain which several points of energy consumption or one enter if it gives heavy load on network. To each distribution group in room board the separate automatic machine is defined. Professional electricians advise to allocate the following groups:
- Lighting of all rooms (except bathroom);
- Lighting and sockets of bathroom;
- Sockets of corridor and kitchen;
- Electric stove;
- Washing machine;
- Sockets of living rooms;
- Electric heat-insulated floor.
Also at independent replacement of electrical wiring advise to take care about the OUZO installations on all groups of the increased risk or at least on all apartment.
The ready plan needs to be followed throughout all repair, and further to store it among important documents. In the subsequent repairs it will be possible to address it to decide on location of wires and not to damage them during any works.
During creation of the plan it is worth paying attention to such moments:
- Arrangement of sockets – they are mounted so that it was convenient to use everything. The regulated height in 30, 60 or 90 cm from floor does not exist, but it is worth proceeding from optimum and safe reasons of ergonomics.
- Fixed electric devices are recommended to be connected directly via the terminal block.
- Low-current sockets do not demand special care – is admissible to integrate them with electric and to mount both lines at the same time.
Drawing marking on walls will become the final stage of work with the plan – all new places for sockets, switches, wires have to be drawn on the places intended to them.
Calculation of loading and selection of material
It is simple to calculate loading, but it is important as both the section of wire, and the number of the lines of electrical wiring going from guard depends on the obtained data. Calculation is conducted according to the following scheme:
- Power of each electric device in the house including lamps is written out;
- To each indicator 100 Watts for providing certain stock increase;
- All digits are summed up;
- The received result is divided into 220 as it demands the law of Ohm, and define limit value of current for new wiring;
- Analyze the obtained data.
Standardly end result keeps within range from 12 to 16 Amperes that allows to choose wire with a section of 1.5 or 1.6 quarter of mm for works. If the size exceeding standard 16 Ampere turns out, then it is worth laying several lines.
Further there is question to what wires to give preference: copper or aluminum. If to address professionals, then the answer will be unambiguous – wires have to be copper. Their characteristic it is better than aluminum wires more than by 1.5 times, and life cycle including.
Among the recommended cables It should be noted one or two-core VVG, NYM, PUNP. It is better to choose braid double as more reliable.
As for cables for socket groups, then optimal solution – three-wire cable with a section of veins of 2.5 mm. quarter or in 4 sq. mm. if loading is especially big.
The quantity of cable is calculated according to the made plan of arrangement of electrical wiring in the house.
Works when replacing electrical wiring have versatile character therefore also the tool will be required the most different. Have to enter basic set:
- Shtroborez (it is possible to replace with the Bulgarian);
- The perforator and nozzles for it;
- Flat-nose pliers, side cutting pliers;
- Sockets and switches with plastic boxes;
- Cables and wires;
- Tuso-terminal boxes;
- Time cut-outs;
- Phase indicator;
- Soldering iron;
- Multimeter or control lamp;
- Rag insulating tape;
- Alabaster or plaster putty;
- Adjusting boxes.
Works on laying of new electrical wiring can be carried out on one of two schemes:
The classical scheme means full de-energization of all rooms and conducting works, since the hall. Here both installation of new guard, and laying of cables, and connection of sockets will enter. Everything is consecutive and accurate. But electricity will not be in the apartment the entire period of installation works.
The temporary scheme allows to bypass similar inconveniences as rooms, in process of performance of work will be consistently deenergized. For this purpose in old unsolder box it is necessary to connect new wiring to old input. It is worth remembering that twisting of wires is not allowed even for temporary connections therefore the terminal block will be necessary. On completion of works all temporary connections have to be liquidated and replaced with constants.
Works are recommended to be conducted in certain sequence:
- Dismantling of old wiring;
- Marking of the place of passing of the main wire;
- Definition of spaces for sockets and switches;
- Mark of the locations of coupling boxes;
- Preparation of spaces for boxes of sockets and switches;
- Laying of wires;
- Installation of boxes of sockets and switches with release of stock of wire about 10 cm;
- Fixing of all established elements and wires by means of alabaster;
- Connection of wires in coupling boxes;
- Installation of sockets and switches.
The last stage of works – connection of all scheme to guard and installation of automatic machines in it. To carry out it nobody independently advises. Even if there is confidence in own forces and all works before have not made any work, it is better to approach guard, having for this purpose special admission.
Also It should be noted several moments:
- Laying new strobe can be avoided if to use old. It is quite admissible and saves forces and time at repair.
- All strobe have to pass on strict straight lines – horizontal or vertical.
- Switches and sockets are put only after full drying of alabaster.
- When mounting switches (sockets) the bared ends of wires need to be processed the soldering iron.
- For rooms with the increased humidity (kitchen, bathroom) it is recommended to use sockets with the pressurizing covers and sealants on the body.
- If the wire in any places passes through wall, it is necessary to use hose or metal hose (metal tube).
Of course, you will not begin to do works on replacement of electrical wiring spontaneously as other types of repair. But if there are signs of need of replacement of all wires for the apartment, means it is worth thinking of big repair and to refresh rooms, increasing at the same time electrical safety of rooms.