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The metal tile, one of the most popular kinds of roofing material, differs in good utilization properties. This reliable, universal covering quite available at the cost of any category of builders. High-quality mounting of metal tile can be run the hands, especially if there is skill in carrying out construction jobs. But even if laying is decided to be entrusted professionals, knowledge of the general principles of mounting will not prevent at all, then it will be possible to exercise control of works with full knowledge of business.
Metal tile: what is it
The roofing material represents plate from steel, its thickness varies from 0.4 to 0.7 mm. It is basis on which the passivating layer is applied. On it primer is imposed. Over it the layer of polymer which in many respects defines operating ability of covering and its color keeps within. Most often as polymer is chosen opaque or glossy plastizol or polyester. For additional protection of metal tile over polymer the varnish coat can be imposed.
Why choose roofing covering
The wide range of roofing materials gives the chance to each owner of the house who is engaged in construction or repair of the housing to pick up the most suitable covering for roof. The metal tile attracts with the indisputable advantages:
- The long term of operation that is guaranteed by properties of galvanized steel. It is rather strong material which is in addition protected by several layers of special coverings interfering emergence of corrosion. Some producers give guarantee for own products for up to 15 years.
- Roof weight from metal tile is rather small: about five kilograms weigh square meter of covering. Such loading will not become excessive for rafters and design in general.
- Material can be referred to category of universal. It can be stacked as independent covering or to fix to the basis.
- Good resistance to adverse effect of the environment. Temperature drops do not cause material deformation that allows to use it even in severe weather conditions.
- Simplicity of mounting. In fact, the covering represents the metal panels which are keeping within at each other and reliably fastened with self-tapping screws.
- Ecological purity of material.
- The available cost of covering allowing it to be the worthy competition to both new, and traditional materials.
- Attractive exterior. The metal tile is issued in different invoices and coloring that allows to select covering for every taste.
Refer good conductivity of sound to shortcomings of material that is caused by special physical properties of steel. Rain drops, knock of branches or hail are very well carried on all house. The only way to reduce the unpleasant phenomenon – to establish additional layer of roofing sound insulation when mounting.
What roof is suitable for metal tile
Good operating ability of metal tile in combination with very affordable price and beautiful exterior involves builders. They choose this covering, not especially thinking and whether its use is reasonable. As practice shows, for some forms of roof laying of metal tile is simply contraindicated. It is connected with inevitably large number of waste that assumes significant rise in price of action.
Distinguish several types of roofs:
- Lean-to. Presents itself the only plane in the rectangle form.
- Twin. Each of two slopes is executed in the form of rectangle.
- Hip. Four slopes, two of which are executed in the form of triangle, and two – rectangles are its part.
- Broken line. Represents four planes rectangles, at the same time about two elements are the share of each slope.
- Tent. Analog hip, distinction – in the form of slopes. They are executed in the form of triangles with the general top.
- Multiplucked. The difficult multilevel design consisting of several hip, twin or others as roofs.
To define expediency of use of metal tile, it is necessary to consider development of roof attentively. That is mentally “to unroll” design, “to lay” it on the plane and to break into simple figures. Broken, lean-to and duo-pitch roofs are formed by rectangles. It is optimal variant. But here in structure hip, tent triangles, parallelograms and trapezes enter. Availability of these elements does laying of material more difficult.
Sheets of metal tile have rectangular shape and the expressed lower and upper part of panel. For this reason use of the inverted cloth is not admissible. Thus, cutting of leaf on diagonal can give large number of waste. Only slopes rectangles can be covered without any scraps. In all other cases it is impossible. It turns out that the ideal option for metal tile can be considered two and single-pitch roofs or the broken line made of rectangular elements. Most of all waste receives during the work with tent roof, with hip – it is a little less.
It is the most difficult to decide on multiplucked design. In this case everything will depend on configuration of the elements making it. Can happen that waste will almost not be or, on the contrary, they will turn out too much. To estimate expense, it is necessary to execute approximate development. If at it there are triangles, it is necessary to check whether there are among them no steam rooms forming rectangle. If is not present, then each element will give the waste comparable with its own area. Specialists warn: if the quantity of the remains is more than 30% of all material, use of metal tile for such roof is inexpedient.
Calculation of necessary amount of material
The covering is characterized by two types of width: the general and working. The last usually makes 1.11 m. To calculate quantity of rows in the horizontal direction of slope, its maximum width which is determined by the fad or by eaves is divided into the worker. The received size is rounded towards increase. Thus receive number of vertical rows, at the same time the overlap is considered. If the rest turns out too big, carrying out adjustment of width of slope at stage of design or carrying out for furring wall in the course of construction is possible. These manipulations are possible only for rectangular roofs. For hip adjustment under covering can be carried out correction of tilt angle of hipped ends on building blueprint stage.
For determination of quantity of panels among it is necessary to calculate its length. Length of slope measured from eaves and to the fad overhang of eaves which is defined by thickness of plate is for this purpose summed up and can be from 0.04 to 0.05 m, and the vertical overlap of panels varying within 0.15 – 0.25 m depending on the recommendations of the manufacturer. Some producers of metal tile offer cutting of sheets to individual measures that allows to reduce waste significantly. If the decision on laying of cloths in one row is made, length of panel can vary ranging from 0.7 up to 8 meters, however it is the best of all that it did not exceed 4-4.5 m.
Sequence of mounting of covering
Placement operations of roofing material is carried out in several steps.
Before to start mounting of roof, it is necessary to be convinced that surface for laying equal. Measurements of slopes on diagonal from corner to corner are for this purpose carried out. If defects are revealed, they can be corrected. The distortion of roof is adjusted by means of furring. Defects of end faces disappear elements. The minimum corner of bias at gable roof has to make not less than 15 ° on 6 m of surface.
If on roof any rigid covering has been laid earlier, it is accurately dismantled. Various passings, smoke, ventilating and any other, are equipped prior to installation works. It is also desirable to carry out laying of metal tile and front works at different times. Otherwise splashes of solution or paint will get on roof and will spoil its exterior. Attempts to remove pollution from metal tile can lead to damage of protective layer of material and its deformation.
Mounting of furring
Works begin with registration of eaves overhang as it is base for mounting of furring. For arrangement of furring choose boards of 100х25 mm, Contras of furring – 50х250 mm. Along eaves overhang, without ledges, precisely on straight line the first board is fixed. It has to be 10-15 mm wider that compensates difference in height of surface on which the first and all subsequent sheets of tile rely. Also the distance between the first board and the second differs. It has to be 50 mm less, than between the others, and makes 300 or 400 mm. All subsequent elements are fixed at the distance equal to cross step of profile of material which can be 350 or 450 mm.
Furring is beaten by 70 or 80 mm nails. They are killed vertically concerning the earth. Beginning from the bottom right edge on all roof area with the step equal to metal tile wavelength, boards jam. They form pediment overhang. Closely under the fad two more boards are hemmed. Internal valley gutters fasten prior to mounting. Begin installation from below, the subsequent parts are imposed with overlap in 150-200 mm. Along all edge the extending porous strip sealant is glued itself. Then the hood mold is fixed.
Laying of insulating materials
If in the house arrangement warm under roofing spaces, so-called penthouse is planned, use of waterproofing films is necessary. Vapor barrier materials are necessary for protection of the laid heater against moistening by the water vapors rising from within the room. The film keeps within under the heat-insulating layer which is laid out under rafters or between them. Mounting is begun from below with panels at the full length of the room.
All subsequent ranks are carried out with overlap in 100-150 mm. Joints are carefully glued with special tape. Material is fixed by the stapler to furring or to rafters. The film rises to the fad and, without additional cuts, is shifted to the following slope. Small nuance: the vapor barrier works only in one party. It is necessary to know precisely how to mount cloth.
The waterproofing membrane possesses special characteristics. From outer side it interferes with condensate penetration, and with internal – well removes excess moisture, allowing heater to remain dry. Material is installed across slope. Guarantee of the correct laying – the competent choice of the necessary party of membrane. It is possible to make it attentively having studied packaging.
The waterproofing is mounted on rafters before installation of furring. Film joints on all length of slope stack not less than 100 mm with overlap. To provide additional ventilation between film and metal tile use counterfurring. At arrangement of cold roof heat and vapor barrier is not used.
Mounting of metal tile
If cutting of sheets is conducted independently, it is necessary to use special electro scissors. Application for these purposes of tools with abrasive wheels is strictly forbidden. The abrasive in the course of cutting leads to strong overheating of surface of cloth in the place of section. The polymeric protective layer burns and exfoliates. The sparks which are formed during the operation of the tool are capable to damage integrity of covering.
Process of laying of metal tile can differ a little depending on type of roof. On tent works begin with installation and fixing of panels on both sides from the highest point of slope. On twin – from the right end face. The sheet edge is exposed strictly on eaves and reliably not less than 40 mm are fixed with ledge. Professionals recommend to lay at first three-five panels, to carefully level them on wind level and eaves and after that finally to fix on furring.
The capillary groove of each panel has to be covered with the following cloth. For fastening the self-cutting screws are used. They are established below cross groove on excess of profile wave perpendicularly to leaf of metal tile. That will execute fastening most precisely. It is the best of all to screw up self-tapping screws by means of the screw driver, however it is possible to use also drill, having established low rotational speed.
It is rather simple to calculate the necessary number of self-tapping screws. Taking into account that on edge the cloth has to be fixed in every second wave, on one square meter from 6 to 8 screws will be required. They are distributed as follows: of the first and the subsequent odd beams of furring about 2 self-tapping screws are the share of cloth. On the second and all even – on 1 screw on leaf. On the site at the fad in every second groove fixture has to be installed.
When mounting metal tile it is necessary to follow the basic rules:
- Placement operations always begins with the right edge of surface.
- On overlappings it is necessary to install fixture in each groove.
- Fix leaf always in the lower crest of wave on the site of its contiguity to furring.
- On the initial site of furring the lower panels establish over step as the strongest wind loads usually fall on this site.
- To other boards of furring the leaf is fixed most close to step from below. Exactly here material has the greatest rigidity, besides this fragment of panel gets to shadow from step, respectively, hats of self-tapping screws will be less noticeable.
- On sites of imposing of cloths it is recommended to shift a little fixture towards overlapping that allows to increase pressure of upper cloth upon lower.
- For the best contiguity of two plates it is possible to displace the centers of fixing of the joined waves on 5 mm.
- On the site located about wind level, material is fixed in each wave.
Inexperienced builders quite often make mistakes in the course of mounting of roof from metal tile. One of the most widespread can consider laying of covering without carrying out preliminary works. The equipped roofing pie with absent “layer” of waterproofing and without ensuring necessary ventilation of subroofing space becomes result. In that case it is possible to recommend to try to correct situation, having pulled from below, bypassing rafters, waterproofing film. Thereby isolation is equipped and, at the same time, the ventilating gap appears. The film fastens on bars fillets longwise of rafters.
It is possible to apply one more option. For the first layer of heater water-proof materials, for example, frothed polyethylene, extruded expanded polystyrene, etc. undertake. Material will perform function of heater and, at the same time, the hydroinsulator. The covering with providing ventilating gap about 25-30 mm between the lower plane of furring and its upper part keeps within.
Pledge of correctly equipped strong roof – careful implementation of all requirements of the instruction. Even not the not most experienced builder if desired will be able to mount roof from metal tile. Competently equipped, it will reliably serve not less than thirty years, pleasing not only very good utilization properties, but also attractive exterior.