Table of Contents
Sandwich-panel is three-layer design which is applied in construction of buildings. It consists of two external layers and heater between them. These products have appeared in the construction market not so long ago, however have already managed to win popularity at buyers. In this article the main characteristics which are possessed by sandwich panels will be considered: sizes and also other parameters.
Sandwich panel: what is it
The sandwiches used at construction of houses consist of three layers. Two external layers are made of identical material, and galvanized steel is considered the most popular. It is connected with high technical characteristics of galvanization among which: excellent corrosion resistance and resistance to high temperatures. Sandwiches from aluminum and oriented-chip plates (OSB) are also widespread.
The most widespread heaters which are used by production of sandwich panels: expanded polystyrene, polyurethane foam and mineral wool. Polyurethane foam products possess high heat-insulating rates and resistance to moisture.
Pay attention! In certain cases panels are made with addition of the fourth layer as which gypsum cardboard acts. Addition of the last in structure of sandwich allows to enhance fire resistance of design.
The fact that buildings from sandwich of panels can be built even in severe weather conditions is considered the main advantage of such plates. Many companies, by production of such construction materials, are guided by the technologies used in the USA and Canada.
Operational area of the panels executed in the form of sandwich
These construction elements are almost deprived of shortcomings that causes their high popularity.
Let’s consider what constructions are built by means of sandwich plates:
- residential buildings;
- sports constructions;
- office and office buildings.
Such products are subdivided to destination into 3 main versions:
- for walls;
- for roof;
- for windows.
In the first case installation of construction elements is made on framework of metal. Wallboards are used for the organization of outside box of the house and also internal partitions. Roofing and window sandwiches are also used when mounting different constructions and differ from wall models on technical characteristics and cost.
Use of sandwich plates allows to execute the project in a short space of time for the minimum cost. Thanks to the small weight of such panels, need for the organization of the high-strength base is excluded.
Sandwich panel are quite often applied at any organization of barriers and also to carrying out reconstruction works on different construction objects. Rigid plates which differ in ridge external layer are used for construction of light-weight framework structures. It is possible to carry to such designs, for example, garages and booths.
Merits and demerits sandwich of panels
At selection of material for construction of the house it is necessary to pay attention to all its characteristics.
Let’s consider the main advantages of use of panels of sandwiches:
- high speed of construction which allows to implement the project in the shortest possible time;
- favorable cost;
- possibility of the organization not only mechanical protection, but also heat insulation;
- lack of need for additional warming of the building;
- the small mass of plates which allows to lower construction foundation load. This point considerably simplifies construction of the house from sandwich panels;
- or mounting of such plates there is no need of use of the special construction equipment;
- front panels are not only material for construction construction, but also decorative element therefore it is not necessary to spend time for exterior finish of the building.
Useful information! Sandwich panels are used not only as the parent construction material, but also can be used for facing of the building. In this case they act as additional thermal isolation.
As well as any other construction product they have also some shortcomings to which it is necessary to pay attention:
- the ready construction executed from such plates cannot resist to considerable mechanical loadings;
- at interior finish of rooms it is necessary to consider the fact that the overload can lead sandwich of plate to its destruction.
Versions sandwich of panels
The plates consisting of several layers sandwich are subdivided into several versions, depending on assignment. As already it has been told above, allocate wall, roofing and window models of plates. Fixing of these products is made on special self-tapping screws which differ in the length.
Also there are PVC panels which are used for slopes when mounting windows. Installation of these construction elements allows to warm design. It is possible to buy the sandwich panel for slopes in any profile shop, construction hypermarket or to order on the Internet.
Features sandwich of panels for walls
These panels are used at wall decoration of the house and to the organization of internal partitions. By means of them also load-carrying structures as their technical characteristics allow to use plates for this purpose are established.
For increase in indicator of rigidity and durability wall modification is revetted with sheets from steel. And also such plates have high coefficient of heat insulation and differ in fire resistance.
Roofing panels and their characteristics
The feature of use of roofing plates influences their technical characteristics. As roofing models are applied when mounting roof, they have high moisture insulating characteristics. This property is very important as the good roof has to protect internal space of the house from atmospheric precipitation.
In addition to the enhanced water insulating properties, roofing models also differ in heat-insulating qualities. Panel sandwich, used for roof, hold warm air which aims upward, indoors. It allows to minimize heat loss. Fixing of roofing plates is made with use of self-tapping screws to wooden bars.
Also It is necessary to tell that such products are noise-insulating. They are equipped with special fixing elements which allow to carry out fast installation and strengthen protection against atmospheric precipitation. Operational term of such products quite long. One more advantage of use roofing sandwich of panels is that they are not deformed over time and do not lose the properties.
L-shaped sandwich panels: sizes
Angle sandwich units are applied to design and also protection of corners of the building from low temperature impact. Very often residents of houses face that badly isolated angles of construction freeze through in winter season.
Such plates can have one of two forms:
- rounded off.
The angle plate can have thickness from 60 to 250 mm, and length and width sandwich of the panel is in the dimensional range of 0.4-3 and 1-1.2 m respectively.
In more detail about design of sandwich plate
The external facing layer of the sandwich panel can be revetted with different materials. They carry out not only protective, but also decorative function.
Let’s consider what materials are used for facing of sandwich plates:
- porcelain concrete;
- tile from ceramics;
- gypsum plasterboard;
- medium density fibreboard;
- stainless steel;
- galvanized steel.
Pay attention! Metal cladding at stage of production is equipped with protecting cover – zinc sputtering or polymeric layer. It is necessary for strengthening of anticorrosive qualities and indicator of rigidity of plate.
Let’s consider structure of outer lining in more detail:
- the sheet of steel which has thickness to 0.5 mm;
- zinc layer or decorative layer from polymeric material (thickness is up to 0.25 mm);
- varnish or paint.
The heat insulator located between two outer layers can consist of the following materials:
- mineral wool (basalt, stone or glass wool);
- expanded polystyrene;
- polyisocyanurate foam.
Characteristics of thermal insulation materials
Let’s consider the main heat insulators used in design of sandwich plate and their property.
Mineral wool is very widespread thermal insulation material which is used not only in sandwich plates, but also in other designs. As a rule, mineral wool is applied at construction of buildings with high fire safety requirements.
Such material has also some shortcomings. For example, mineral wool well absorbs moisture and over time loses the useful qualities. And also it is possible to carry its weight which is higher, than at other heat insulators to shortcomings of mineral wool.
Expanded polystyrene. Such material differs in good environmental friendliness and is safe for human health. Expanded polystyrene has good moisture resistance and also resistant to influences of aggressive chemicals. The price of the sandwich panel with filler from expanded polystyrene most is low (in comparison with other products).
From shortcomings of expanded polystyrene it is possible to mark out only weak fire resistance. The small weight of expanded polystyrene promotes fast mounting of industrial and commercial constructions.
Polyurethane foam. is heater which has close-meshed structure. The main advantage of polyurethane foam – low coefficient of thermal conductivity (below, than at mineral wool and expanded polystyrene). It is regulated by the corresponding state standard 23486–79.
The main lack of polyurethane foam – low fire resistance. And also polyurethane foam spoils, being under the influence of ultraviolet rays. Plate sandwich in which polyurethane foam is located are often applied to the organization of refrigeration chambers.
Polyurethane foam. This material is advanced analog of polyurethane foam. Differs in what has higher resistance to naked flame and influence of direct ultraviolet rays.
Useful information! Coefficient of thermal conductivity of the polyurethane foam is lower, than at all other thermal insulation materials.
Thanks to the qualities the is applied at the organization of freezing chambers and pools. Active chemicals resistance allows to use this material at construction of warehouses of harmful chemical compounds.
Wall sandwich panels: sizes of panels
Wall sandwich panels are used to wall construction and partitions. The ratio of dimensions of sandwich panels and the prices varies, depending on what materials have been used by production of plate. For example, for performance of identical heat insulation of the house it is necessary to use plates with polyurethane foam which thickness is 50 mm or products containing inside layer of mineral wool of 100 mm.
For mounting of industrial constructions products which length and width is 7.5-8 and 1.15 m respectively are used. Use of long panels allows to simplify and accelerate mounting of the building.
Length of standard sheet is in limits of 3-8 m, width of 1.2 m, thickness of 40-320 mm.
From minuses sandwich of panels for walls it is possible to note weak resilience to mechanical influences. For improvement of strength indices sheets cover with special protective structures. Variety of the range allows to choose and buy the sandwich panel without effort.
The sizes sandwich of panels for roof
The popularity of these plates when mounting roof is caused by the fact that they are made together with heater. Thus, time of construction of roof structure decreases several times. The most widespread material from which, such panels – galvanized steel with specialized protecting cover are manufactured. Stainless steel is in the second place. The sizes roofing sandwich of panels lie in the range: length is 8-16 m, width is 1000 mm and thickness is 40-160 mm.
Many companies turn out products, non-standard by the sizes, therefore in case of need it is possible to issue the individual order. The cost of roofing panels differs depending on thickness and type of heater and also production material.
It is possible to buy the sandwich panel of any type in specialized shop or construction hypermarket. And also it is possible to issue the order of necessary construction material on the Internet.
Pay attention! Within one working day the experienced crew of masters can mount to 500 m ² roofing sandwich of panels.
Houses from turnkey sandwich panels
Construction of frame houses gains popularity. In case of need it is possible to order the turnkey house.
Let’s consider what advantages such inhabited constructions have:
- high speed of construction;
- good heat insulation. Holds materials of which are made plate sandwich warmly in the building and does not pass cold inside;
- fire resistance;
- noise isolation;
- environmental friendliness;
- durability (life cycle of such house can reach 80 years).
Frame houses are called still Canadian as they are built on the same technologies, as well as in Canada. The base for such house is carried out on screw piles.
Let’s consider the main advantages of such base:
- high speed of performance (no more than 2 days);
- long operational term (up to 100 years);
- possibility of mounting because of any type;
- possibility of mounting at all seasons of the year;
- high ecological rates;
- economy (up to 50%).
For the choice of suitable option it is recommended to study on the Internet of photo of houses from sandwich panels. The prices of such cottages are also specified on the websites of civil engineering firms.
Garages from sandwich panels: prices and construction features
For mounting of garage framework structure special sandwich panels – rigid ribbed are used. From the financial point of view, the organization of such garage is more favorable, than construction of brick construction or concrete. It is possible to execute from such panels also hangar for the economic or production purposes. The hangar price from sandwich panels depends on building dimensions.
Let’s consider the basic structural components which are used when mounting garage design:
- framework from profile square pipes with a section of 60х60 mm;
- sandwich panels.
For such garage design it is not obligatory to establish the capital base as sandwich elements differ in small weight. It is enough to organize tape grillage. The recommended width of such tape – 20 cm.
The garage design from ridge sandwich panels differs in compactness and universality. In case of need the design can be sorted and transferred to other place that is very convenient.
On the Internet it is possible to study opinion of builders on houses from sandwich panels. Reviews of garages from this material are also present at construction forums.
Mounting of sandwich panels: instruction
Mounting of sandwich panels – serious action which demands professional construction skills and knowledge. Therefore the best option in such situation – to use services of qualified specialists. However in case of need it is possible to conduct installation of sandwich design independently.
Before mounting it is necessary to prepare the following tools and materials:
- sandwich plates;
- screw driver and drill;
- corner from metal or profile in the form of letter U;
- crenulate saw;
- mineral wool;
- special self-tapping screws;
- anchors with laying;
- self-adhesive tape;
- lifting gear;
- devices for clip;
- the special pressurizing structure on the basis of silicone.
Mounting of wallboards is made in two ways:
Specialists recommend to apply vertical method of installation if height is ranging from 3 up to 6 m at home. Vertical mounting of such plates is carried out quite simply: panels are fixed with use of self-tapping screws closer to socle and roof. Among themselves plates are joined by means of special locks.
In turn, at horizontal option of mounting it is much simpler to fix locks. In that case mounting is carried out from construction socle. Separate plates are fixed at the edges to framework.
Let’s consider algorithm of actions when mounting roofing plates:
- Before mounting it is necessary to check locks of plates. Mineral wool should not be located behind internal shelf of the lock, otherwise it will make mounting impossible.
- Installation of panels is carried out from the roof fad.
- At this stage it is necessary to record the first plate (open wave to house end face).
- Further the panel is leveled.
- Then it is necessary to check as far as the panel overhang acts. It is very important that when mounting the design distance remained.
- At this stage it is necessary to stretch cord (on the roof fad). The edge of product is mounted parallel to house axis.
- The panel is fixed by means of special self-tapping screws.
- At the end it is necessary to carry out splice closure of locks.
sandwich plates are the innovation modern material and are issued in different variations. Every year the design of such panels is improved. Their cost decreases, and technical characteristics, on the contrary, amplify that guarantees stable increase in demand for these products at buyers.