Table of Contents
Despite all variety of the construction materials presented at the market, and at professional builders, and at fans the brick uses still deserved popularity. This reliable, durable and universal material has several standard dimensions. At the same time the greatest demand at construction and finishing of buildings is observed on the sizes of brick one-and-a-half that is considerable economy at its application and esthetics.
Size of brick unary, one-and-a-half and double
When calculating amount of material, it is necessary to consider what size at brick which is required at construction. It will help to avoid excess expenses.
There are 3 basic sizes:
- unary (single-row, standard);
- one-and-a-half (reinforced);
- double (the second name – double stone).
Parameters of brick unary following: length – 250 mm, width – 120 mm, height – 65 mm.
Dimensions of one-and-a-half brick: length – 250 mm, width – 120 mm, height – 88 mm. The sizes of double brick, as well as reinforced, differ only in height – 138 mm. Now on sale bricks and oversizes – “Euro” (length of 250 mm, width of 85 mm, height of 65 mm) are provided and modular with the same height has length of 288 mm and width of 138 mm.
Advantages of one-and-a-half brick in comparison with unary
Calculations show that the material consumption on 1 m ³ taking into account solution seams makes 394 units at application of unary brick and 302 units at application of one-and-a-half. It allows to save not bad at construction.
So, at laying of load-carrying structure it is possible to use not 3 rows of standard brick and row facing, and 2 rows hollow and one number of one-and-a-half facing brick. And, not only the amount of the used material, but also solution consumption is significantly saved.
Height of one-and-a-half brick exceeds height unary only on 23 mm, but this difference allows to accelerate the course of masonry works for 30%. The undoubted advantage of reinforced brick is its weight. So, the unary brick weighs from 2 to 2.3 kg, and the weight of one-and-a-half brick, despite big dimensions, weighs only one third more.
Main types of reinforced brick on material, purpose and basis of design
There are several standard classifications of brick.
First of all, depending on material from which it is produced allocated:
- ceramic, or red;
- silicate, or white.
Have these two appearance at different characteristics, scopes of application and properties identical dimensions. The sizes of lime sand brick of one-and-a-half and one-and-a-half ceramic – 250 mm, 120 mm and 88 mm
Ceramic brick: production technique, merits and demerits
The ceramic one-and-a-half brick is made from clay without foreign impurity (sulfates, marl) and special additives giving to finished product required properties.
It is interesting! Raw materials from which make red brick are unsuitable for production of any other products from clay.
Ways of production of brick:
- Plastic. Clay raw materials with the increased humidity (up to 30%) arrive from tape press, dry and burn at temperature about 1000 °C. At the same time it is very important to sustain roasting time strictly. Both not burned up, and burned through brick differ not only not esthetic exterior, but also low quality. At incomplete burning the brick has too light coloring and low indicators of water resistance and frost resistance, at overburning – characteristic burn marks, numerous cracks and uneven form and also high level of heat conductivity. Ideally after the correct heat treatment the surface of ceramic brick becomes semi-gloss, and at blow it makes characteristic ringing sound.
- Method of moist pressing. At this method the brick forms from natural clay with the insignificant level of humidity (10%) under strong pressing. Received as a result ready products it is impossible to use for construction of rooms with high humidity.
Advantages of ceramic brick:
- excellent sound insulation;
- it is made from environmentally friendly material – clay, it is absolutely harmless to health as in the course of construction, and in use;
- universality (is suitable for construction and inhabited, and industrial buildings, for construction of internal and external walls);
- resistance to difficult weather patterns, including hard frosts;
- wide choice of forms, the sizes and coloring (mixing different grades of clay, producers try to obtain rich color palette – red, brown, beige, terracotta, yellow, peach shade that allows to use ceramic bricks both at construction of new buildings, and during the restoration works);
- good heat insulation and vapor barrier;
- material is easily deformed when transporting, and at its edges chips are formed;
- moisture resistance.
Shortcomings of red brick:
- emergence of whitish salty raid;
- high cost.
Lime sand brick: as it is made, pluses and minuses
At its production 9 parts of the manganese purified from foreign impurity and clay of quartz sand and 1 part of lime are used. By moist pressing create bricks of this limy and sand weight, and then within 10-13 hours subject them to influence of water vapor and high pressure.
To give to finished product the necessary shade add pigments, special, steady against adverse weather conditions, to silicate weight. At the expense of it it is possible to achieve huge variety of shades – even such not inherent for brick traditional constructions as blue, blue, yellow, pink, violet.
Advantages of one-and-a-half lime sand brick:
- good sound insulation and insignificant heat conductivity;
- environmental friendliness;
- frost resistance;
- resistance to adverse weather conditions;
- the affordable price (costs of red brick are approximately one third lower);
- accurate geometry of finished goods;
- huge choice of colors and textures.
- insufficient moisture resistance (it is impossible to use at laying of the foundation, sewer manholes, socles, cellars – all objects of zero cycle where there is risk of flooding or continuous contact with underground waters);
- low heat resistance;
- considerable weight (the weight of lime sand brick of one-and-a-half corpulent fluctuates ranging from 4.2 up to 5 kg, and the same ceramic – from 4 to 4.2 kg).
It is important! Because of low cost in owner-occupied dwellings at construction of flues, fireplaces and furnaces often apply lime sand brick. However their life cycle will be short – only several years, and under the influence of high temperatures the laying will begin to collapse. So in practice such economy comes out very costly and thus unsafe.
Types of brick on scope of application
- construction brick (other names – draft, ordinary, masonry, socle);
- front (facing, front);
The draft brick is used at construction of internal partitions, enclosing structures, load bearing walls and also for filling of emptiness. It can be used also at construction of external walls, but only with obligatory putting plaster.
The facing one-and-a-half brick is applied when finishing rooms and facades. Differs in fine exterior – smooth edges, without chips and cracks, accurate geometrical lines. It is one of the most available finishing materials. It is worth remembering that the red brick is suitable for areas with the increased humidity, and for droughty hot regions the lime sand brick will become the best choice.
Important! In addition to standard dimensions of one-and-a-half facing brick and unary on sale there are bricks with width of 85 mm, 80 mm and 60 mm with length of 250 mm and also with dimensions of 290 mm, 140 mm and 85 mm.
In addition allocate impressive (it has decorative chopped surface, as at the raw stone, smooth or uneven edges) and profile brick (it is distinguished by irregular shapes, round edges, it decorate window sills, window openings, corners of buildings).
The special brick – first of all is refractory chamotte brick. He is not afraid of repeated influence of high temperatures and well keeps heat. The refractory one-and-a-half brick is optimum, long-lasting and safe choice for laying of internal surfaces of fireplaces, furnaces and flues.
Types of one-and-a-half brick depending on basis of design
Bricks are corpulent and hollow. Such bricks accurately differ on scopes of application. The first are always used at construction of load-carrying structures, at construction of fireplaces and flues, the second at construction of partitions and facing of buildings.
In corpulent bricks the porosity should not exceed 13% (for lime sand bricks), or emptiness have to be absent in general. In case with hollow lime sand brick the amount of emptiness reaches 30%, in clay bricks can lower indicator by 15%. And in ceramic openings have the different forms and are evenly distributed on all area, and at silicate they are displaced to the center and, as a rule, have the cylinder form.
What do such cameras give? They significantly save raw materials consumption, time spent on its production so the cost of finished goods falls. Considerably the weight of product and all construction in general and foundation load decreases. For example, the weight of one-and-a-half hollow brick is of clay 3-3.2 kg, and the weight of corpulent red 4-4.2 kg. For comparison the weight of facing brick one-and-a-half white – 5 kg at corpulent designs and 3.9 kg at hollow.
Treats the most important advantages of hollow one-and-a-half brick also excellent heat-insulating characteristics that allows to save even more on thickness of walls.
Durability, weight and sizes of brick one-and-a-half
The most important characteristic of this construction material is its ability to resist different loadings and not to be deformed.
Optimum durability bricks with marking have. They can be used also at construction of country houses, and at construction of multi-storey buildings, at laying of the foundation, fireplace or the furnace, load bearing walls and partitions, during the internal and facing works. Not least it is connected with variety of forms of release of brick of this brand. He is normal squared, trapezoid and figured.
It differs in good fire resistance, big density because of what absorbs moisture, durability worse. M150 brick sizes same, as at material with smaller strength indices: unary, reinforced, euro.
The weight of corpulent brick of M 150 unary reach 3.6 kg (at average value from 2 to 2.2 kg), one-and-a-half – to 4.5 kg (average value – about 3 kg).