Table of Contents
Receiving full-fledged harvest – the main objective of professional gardeners and fans. They use lot of the efforts, and the result, unfortunately, not always satisfies. Desire to refuse as much as possible use of chemistry in crop production and to grow up good harvests has had real opportunity to be realized: there was new type of covering film from polymer. Spunbond: what is it and as it is correct to apply it – answers to these questions can be found in contents of the offered article.
Basic purpose of covering material for plants
Features of climatic zones are investigated long ago. Necessary cultivation of the soil is carried out, certain types of cultures land. But even more often not only in supermarkets where the goods from the different southern countries are delivered, but also on market counters it is possible to buy greens, fresh cucumbers, garden radish, tomatoes and even pepper in the early spring.
Early maturing – creation for plants of such temperature conditions at which they will be able fully to develop in earlier terms is reached in the only way. Hothouse conditions are for this purpose created. And here to the main components there will be covering material. It is possible to cover the soil that it got warm and did not lose heat and also seedling, saplings, escapes.
Until recently function of covering cloth was performed practically by only polyethylene film. It protects from frosts, the drying-up winds, for a certain time keeps microclimate, but does not pass moisture at all, interferes with full penetration of natural light and poorly protects plants from influence of ultraviolet. Being long time under direct sunshine, the polyethylene film grows turbid. The term of use of such material is limited to one season.
Covering material spunbond: main characteristics and types
There was new type of covering material which has received the name “spunbond”. It, in comparison with film, is more effective for creation of favorable microclimate for plants. The material received from the thin threads emitted from polypropylene and connected in the thermoway – here what is spunbond. The name has come from the name of production technique of cloth. The main features of the used polymer have allowed to use actively and effectively nonwoven fabric spunbond not only in small-scale home enterprises and on seasonal dachas, but also for cultivation of many cultures commercially.
Main technical characteristics of covering material spunbond:
- wear resistance large-scale;
- maintains long influence of high temperatures;
- it is steady against effect of moisture;
- gives in to coloring;
- has the broad range of density.
On the functional orientation this polymeric material can be separated into two views:
- stimulating development of plants by optimum transparency and moisture permeability and protection against the lowered temperatures;
- protecting the soil by regulation of the water and air modes in top layers (mulching).
Helpful advice! Before acquisition of spunbond it is necessary to be defined what the purposes are set: safety of the soil or protection of plants. Simultaneous use on one parcel of two types of this covering material is undesirable as the water balance is broken.
Depending on assignment agrofibre is produced white and black color. Density of spunbond varies from 15 to 160 g/m ².
Versions and use of white spunbond
White agrofibre differs on density, so, and on use purposes. Density of 17 g/m ² has the thinnest appearance. This material can save shoots or seedling from temperature lowered up to -2 °C. Protects from excess ultraviolet, promotes preservation of moisture in top soil, covers from wind, from damage of sprouts by insects and birds.
Main advantages of this material:
- easy, under its weight plants do not break;
- well passes water, when watering there is no need to remove it;
- provides good air exchange, condensate under it does not accumulate;
- easily is displayed and cleans up.
Use of spunbond of small density is reasonable at cultivation of early vegetables, seedlings of flowers and other garden cultures. After planting of plants material needs to be spread directly on the site from above and to fix edges or to powder them with the earth.
Helpful advice! You should not pierce material sharp objects with uneven surfaces not to damage cloth. It is better to use smooth fastening in the form of bracket.
The agrofibre having density of 23 g/m ² protects crops from frost to -5 °C. Sunlight passes in optimum quantity. Excess moisture penetration warns.
Main advantages of this material:
- more dense and is more long-lasting in use, than agrofibre plotnostyyu17 than g/m ²;
- the ability to detain water excludes possibility of rotting of plants;
- does not limit air permeability.
Besides that this agrofibre is used in the spring for protection of plants against adverse weather conditions, and in the summer – for maintenance of moisture and protection against ultraviolet, such covering material is suitable for extension of vegetation of plants in the fall. It is not recommended for imposing on frameworks.
Agrofibre with a density of 30 g/m ² can protect up to -7 °C from fall of temperature. This cloth allows to plant seedling to the open ground of term much earlier.
Main advantages of this material:
- despite considerable density, does not reduce extent of penetration of sunlight and air streams;
- it is possible to spread on soil and also to do greenhouses of the small sizes;
- maintains considerable snow layer – to 5 cm.
In addition to traditional use (to lay on soil), this material is convenient for concealment of saplings of thermophilic trees in winter time.
Agrofibre with a density of 50 g/m ² allows plants to maintain incontinuous fall of temperature to -10 °C. Creates greenhouse effect.
Main advantages of this material:
- ensuring the accelerated warming up of the soil;
- maintenance of high temperature in the greenhouse throughout long time;
- possibility of superearly disembarkation (at the first emergence of spring sunshine) seedlings to the open ground;
- durability of use.
Material is recommended for creation of greenhouses.
Features of use of black spunbond
Black covering material creates favorable microclimate to the parts of plant which are in the soil. It has high density – 150 g/m ². Moisture-permeable therefore there is no need to remove it during watering. Does not pass sunlight, thereby keeping moisture in the soil.
Use of black spunbond reliably protects roots of saplings in winter time, allowing them to maintain temperature to -8 °C. Protects from weeds, saving time and forces spent for weeding. Protects the fruits located close to the soil from pollution and rotting.
Main advantages of this material:
- wear resistance;
- ease at the considerable density;
- opportunity to cover the soil both around berry cultures, and around bushes and trees, considerable by the size.
Helpful advice! If it is necessary to develop “virgin soil”, the most effective remedy – spunbond. On weeding forces and time are necessary, and herbicides will do to the soil harm.
Having considered different ways of use of spunbond on photo, gardeners and gardeners will be able to expand possibilities of its application.
The being spunbond prices: density, width, trademark
The cost of any goods consists of quantitative quality indicators. The spunbond price for square meter most of all depends on density: than material, that high price is more dense. It is simple to calculate amount of the purchased covering material – spunbond width traditionally is 1.6 or 3.2 m. Sell agromaterial in rolls and packed up.
The most expensive – white spunbond of 60 g/m ².
The main suppliers of agrofibre are the Italian company Agreen and the Polish Premium Agro. Material technological, is in demand. The cost, the sizes, packing of essential difference of goods have no. At these producers it is insignificant above (for 2-4%) the price of black spunbond. Among kinds of white covering material there is agromaterial of non-standard density (19, 22, 43 g/m ²).
Helpful advice! During seasonal recession of garden and garden activity the sales level of covering material therefore the companies carry out actions and discounts decreases. Spunbond – not spoiling material, it is possible to buy it in advance, considerably having reduced material inputs.
Covering material lutrasil: application and technical characteristics
Question: “What it lutrasil? – rather often set those who already used or have heard a lot about spunbond, but it is unfamiliar with this type of covering. It is covering the material made of polypropylene and on similar technology too: from the melted polymer threads which do not intertwine (nonwoven way) are emitted, and imposed at each other and then fastened. The cloth web turns out.
Lutrasil is separated into two views: for protection of plants and mulching. Is issued white and black color. Has different density and it is applied to concealment of seedling, early shoots, production of hotbeds, protection of the soil. White agromaterial provides air exchange, doses sunlight, holds moisture on surface, protects from low temperatures, that is creates conditions, necessary for growth of plants. Black lutrasit does not pass sunlight, interferes with emergence of weeds and keeps wet top layer of the earth.
Material wearproof, is not subject to influence of moisture and high climatic temperature. Is on sale in rolls and packed up. The price of lutrasil does not differ from the cost of other polymeric agrofabrics.
Differences of lutrasil and spunbond absolutely insignificant, only “pattern” which is used when laying threads differs. On the main qualitative and functional characteristics materials are identical.
Helpful advice! Upon purchase of covering cloth it is necessary to consider density, the size and the price. All types of nonwoven fabric are made practically on one technology and have identical quality.
Characteristics of covering material agrotex
Along with lutrasils and spunbond material agrotex which has inherited the name from the trademark of the same name is actively used by gardeners covering. In the course of production of this agrofabric the same technology is used, as by production of spunbond: release of polypropylene threads and their fastening. The structure of cloth porous, density is different.
The main properties of this material are traditional:
- protects plants from sharp weather changes and increases productivity;
- through it there passes light, thanks to stabilizers of ultraviolet of plant receive sufficient coverage and are protected from solar burns;
- for plants the hotbed with the corresponding microclimate which promotes their rapid growth is created;
- mulches the soil;
- fabric easy, in the course of growth of plant raise it, without receiving at the same time injuries.
Is on sale in rolls and packed up, it is made generally white and black color (there are several types of two-color cloth with double protective layer). Width of 1.6 or 3.2 m, as well as at other types of covering material.
It is convenient for use black perforated agrotex, having ready openings for landing of plants. This polymeric fabric is intended for disembarkation of strawberry to beds, but also is applied to other cultures which land seedling (cucumbers, tomatoes, pepper, etc.). Round openings with a diameter of 8 cm are located in chessboard order on cloth at distance of 30 cm from each other.
Keeps all properties of the mulching material: passes water when watering, breathes, does not allow moisture to evaporate quickly. Use of this polypropylene material does effective and simplifies process of cultivation of garden and garden cultures:
- saves beds from weeds;
- saves time and forces (already ready openings for landing);
- keeps in perfect tune fruits and berries.
If there is no opportunity to buy perforated material or the sizes of openings do not approach, they are recommended to be done with the help of sharp knife (it is possible to use clerical).
Helpful advice! If openings round, it is necessary to make 4-5 cuts on all circle that agrofabric did not interfere with development of plant.
How to make hotbed of spunbond
Hotbeds from agrofabric were widely adopted. They are actively used for cultivation of early vegetables. The hotbed from spunbond can be bought. It consists of arches and directly cloth throughout which arches are passed. Length varies from 2 to 15 m. Fabric density different, is opportunity to choose at desire and according to the purposes and weather conditions.
It is simple to make hotbed with own hands. In order to avoid complaints on insufficient rigidity of arches (as in ready designs), it is better to make them of plastic pipe, having inserted metal rods which easily and deeply will enter soil into places of cuts. It is necessary to buy covering material spunbond of desirable width and density and on the sewing machine to stitch “trenches” into which then to insert arches.
Helpful advice! When choosing density of material it is necessary to be guided by the expected purposes and features of climate. The durability of the use of nonwoven polymeric cloth depends only on the correct use and storage.
With height of hotbed up to 0.8 m of arch it is necessary to place 1 m at distance. If height much more, it is possible to increase distance to 1.5 m. It is worth to remember that in warm day time the hotbed has to open. It is possible to make also simpler design: to insert arches and from above to outline cloth, having pressed to the earth heavy objects. Such hotbed is reasonable if it is used only at night.
Black spunbond: that it. Use of material for strawberry bed
Strawberry – berry which ripens one of the first. Therefore it is quite natural that it is influenced by unbeneficial changes of yet not established weather. Besides, it is desirable to accelerate process of vegetation. This berry takes roots in extreme top layers of soil therefore low temperature for it can be pernicious. Gentle young leaves are damaged by garden wreckers, and juicy berries without sufficient airing rot.
All above-mentioned problems can be solved landing of strawberry on spunbond. Thanks to technical carbon which is included into structure of fibers spunbond absorbs more heat, and the soil under such mulch gets warm quicker, so, bushes of strawberry develop earlier, than the plants planted on normal beds. At the same time the shelter hampers the growth of weeds as they do not receive enough light. In winter time covering material does not allow the soil to freeze through.
For the maximum effect it is extremely important to place correctly black spunbond for strawberry. Preparing the site, it is necessary to dig up the soil, deleting weeds, to introduce fertilizers, then rake to level surface.
Helpful advice! By preparation of the soil for landing of strawberry it is necessary to break big lumps of the earth, otherwise between covering cloth and soil the unnecessary space which is not allowing to create the necessary microclimate is formed. Also in such situation perhaps mechanical damage of agrofabric.
The distance between ranks of bed should not be less than 60 cm, and between bushes – 30 cm. The spunbond strip for strawberry has to be 20 cm wider and longer than the site which is supposed to be covered. Cloth it is necessary to spread, do crosswise cuts through each 30 cm, then to lay on bed, having powdered on 10 cm with the earth and to stamp. Only after that it is necessary to begin disembarkation. The Covering cloth can be not removed from bed 3-4 years, there will be no need of change (rejuvenation) of strawberry yet.
Spunbond: what is it. Progress in production of covering materials
Active use of covering materials from polypropylene contains at least two decades. This time is enough to receive resistant results of testing. Possibilities of application of covering cloth extend: from protection of seedling before preparation of acreage of the considerable sizes.
At the correct target use economic calculation convincing: on self-sufficiency one season suffices. The repeated use reduces material inputs almost to zero. Process of storage is simplest – to roll or put cloth. Spunbond washes, it is not recommended to wring out and unscrew it (yes and no need), water quickly flows down, and fabric dries.
In use it is available, does not demand use of special stock. Easy, it is not necessary to use the considerable physical efforts when covering.
The main characteristics of spunbond put it in discharge of eco-friendly materials. It does not render any chemical impact on soil and plants even at the most high daytime temperature.
Availability, efficiency and environmental friendliness – the main distinctive features of the covering material made on technology spunbond. It gives to gardeners and gardeners opportunity to increase productivity, having saved at the same time physical forces and time.