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The natural stone served as one of parent materials for construction for a long time. However everything has changed with the advent of modern construction material – brick. The person could give to finished product the necessary characteristics independently. Every day it is possible to observe use of this construction material in the most different variations. Today is not problem to get independently standard brick: you will be able to learn the sizes and selection criteria in this article.
Where the standard brick is applied: sizes and versions
The brick is universal material which is used in many spheres of construction. There are several types and standards of the size of bricks. Right choice of material – guarantee of successful result of your work.
Depending on production material and also from characteristics of product, bricks can be separated into four main groups:
- Ordinary red brick.
- White lime sand brick.
- Ceramic brick.
- Facing brick.
Main spheres of use of brick:
- wall construction (including bearing);
- laying of the foundation;
- construction of first floors;
- arrangement of cellars;
- facing of facades;
- construction of ladders;
- construction in houses of brick partitions;
- laying of fireplaces and furnaces.
Use of usual red brick is most widespread. Its technical characteristics perfectly are suitable for performance of set of the most various works. Including construction of elevator shafts, columns, arches of buildings. Quite often normal red brick is used for laying of the foundation of low houses.
If to speak about construction of ladders, then in this case it is better to use stoneware. It is steadier against moisture influence, temperature drops and other environmental activities. Besides the ceramics rather easily gives in to mechanical influence that allows to cut bricks if necessary.
Standard of the sizes of brick
Distinguish unary, double and one-and-a-half brick, we will consider the sizes of each type below.
In development of construction craft certain standards to which there has to correspond material were developed. Size of unary brick: 120 mm in width, 250 mm in length and 65 mm height. Such size of bricks is considered ideal for laying with alternation of longitudinal and cross placement.
Eventually and construction development, more and more various materials were required. Has so appeared new, non-standard bricks of the one-and-a-half size. Their parameters: 120 mm in width, 250 mm in length and 88 mm height.
Application of such bricks demands knowledge of the special equipment of the laying designed to facilitate the final weight of construction. So, it is necessary to alternate corpulent bricks to porous, perforated or hollow.
The double brick has the impressive sizes, in result of what is never made corpulent. The size of brick is 120 mm in width, 250 mm in length and 103 mm height. Use them only for the facilitated layings.
Red ordinary brick: size, weight, marking
Red brick – universal material which is produced by roasting of the pressed clay briquettes. It is most often used for construction of the bases, walls, partitions. Also it is applied to laying of furnaces and fences.
Avoid acquisition of the burned-through bricks. Them it is visible with the naked eye on the black, refake middle and the singed edges. For the majority of construction jobs such material cannot be used, however it suits for base laying.
The weight of corpulent brick is from 3.5 to 3.8 kg. One cubic meter of red brick weighs about 1700 kg and contains about 480 pieces. On packaging the producer surely specifies pressure which can keep this material on compression in kg/cm², for example, 76, 100, 125, 200, etc.
Helpful advice! Qualitatively flame brick at blow will make clear, ringing sound.
White brick: sizes and scopes of application
The white or lime sand brick is made on the basis of silicate why has received the name. Strong and light material which is applied generally to wall construction and partitions. Such brick is never used for laying of the base, furnaces, pipes, fireplaces or socles. Standard of the size of white brick: 250х120х88 mm.
Helpful advice! Knowing the modular size of brick, it is possible to design future design and to count necessary amount of material.
Ceramic brick, sizes and characteristics
Material familiar to all of us which, in turn, is divided into construction and facing. Allocate with separate look oven brick. The size and convenient form allow to do equal, smooth laying without excess seams. Standard dimension of oven brick — 250х125х65 mm.
As this material is applied to laying in very responsible places, to inadmissibly use bricks even with small defects. It is simple to check quality of bricks – at knocking refractory bricks have to make metal sound. When splitting it has to be scattered on large pieces. The low-quality, not burned up material will accumulate moisture that can lead to destruction of design. The oven brick is more expensive normal, however it fire-resistant and perfectly keeps heat. Size of refractory bricks always identical.
Helpful advice! Instead of oven use of chamotte brick is quite admissible. The sizes and characteristics of this material quite conform to all requirements.
Facing brick: sizes and features of application
The decorative brick is applied to laying of walls, at the same time providing plain, smooth surface. Its correct form allows to use product as final finishing of walls both indoors, and outside. At the same time the glossy surface of external walls of brick gives to surface special chic.
For these qualities the decorative brick is quite often called “front”. There are no difficulties in work with this type of material, except need to pay special attention to cutting of seams. The size of facing brick can be different depending on look: unary, one-and-a-half or double.
The standard of the size of facing brick does not differ from normal analog in any way. Exceptions make handiwork. Oversizes of unary facing brick can be 210х100х50 mm, 240х115х52 mm or 210х100х65 mm.
Such sizes of unary facing brick make not at the plants, and there are they 10 times more. Are issued always limited series. They are used for restoration of old buildings or implementation of the original construction ideas.
The size of handmade one-and-a-half facing brick can also be the most different, for example, 240х115х71 mm. Use of bricks of such size looks much better.
Double facing bricks of oversizes happen in mm format 240х115х113 or 190х90х90.
Whether to use facing brick of standard dimension for finishing of the house, or to buy handmade more expensive materials – to solve to you. However before purchase it is better to consult to the specialist who will be able to explain all nuances of work with specific type of bricks.
How to choose standard brick. Sizes and technical characteristics
Before buying brick, it is necessary to understand the purpose of its acquisition precisely. It will define necessary material properties.
Color of brick depends on clay of which it is made. The most widespread option – flushing clay weight. It gives to finished product usual to us red color. It is possible to meet less often clay bricks of white, apricot or yellowish color for which production use white burning clay. Happens that for obtaining desirable color or shade add special pigment to initial material.
The normal brick perfectly is suitable for wall construction and construction of designs of any complexity. Standard dimensions of ordinary brick: 250х120х56 mm.
Further he demands additional finishing, for example, of plastering. Facing material has so plain and smooth surfaces that does not need additional finishing. However at the same time the prices and the sizes of facing brick are much more various.
Helpful advice! Bricks can have the relief drawing intended for the best coupling with finishing mortar on surface.
Important criterion for selection of brick – durability, that is ability of material not to collapse under the influence of external loadings. For construction of the low house it is quite enough that the brick maintained load of 100 kg of 1 cm. If it is about construction of the multi-storey building, then the indicator has to be not less than 150. Durability of each specific party is always specified the producer on packaging.
One more important indicator of quality of brick – frost resistance. This size is measured in cycles and by means of tests is defined for each brand of brick separately. The ready-made product is placed at first in water, and then in the freezing chamber. The term of stay in each environment – 8 hours. It is also one cycle which is repeated until material does not begin to change the characteristics visually.
Multi-storey buildings and industrial buildings, according to norms, are under construction of bricks with frost resistance not less than 35 cycles. However goods with the most different indicators are presented at the market. Without effort it is possible to find 25 and 15 cycles. Material cost with low indicator will be much lower, but whether you should regret about it over time? If you are not sure what option to choose, address better the specialist who will help you to pick up the brick suitable for your climate and type of construction.
Exterior of bricks
Today there are two options of the size of brick: standard and non-standard. As earlier it was mentioned, standard length – 250 mm, width – 120 mm, and height – 65 mm. Such parameters are connected not only with the fact that such brick is most convenient in work and well is located in hand. The matter is that in the course of construction bricks are perpendicular each other, at the same time alternating the longitudinal and cross parties.
Look narrowly at digits, and you will notice that standard indicators are almost multiple each other. And it facilitates any calculations, work with such material and minimizes need of sawing of bricks.
It is quite often possible to meet also bricks of oversizes. They have the same length and width, as well as standard, and differ only in stone height. For example, thickness of one-and-a-half product is 88 mm, and double – 138 mm. Such materials generally use in the decorative purposes. It is good to decorate with them houses, roofs and facades.
For example, good choice of color and size of facing brick: yellow one-and-a-half or double brown.
Weight of bricks
One more of characteristics of brick – its weight. For different types of products this indicator absolutely different. So, the weight of standard ceramic or lime sand brick is 3.8-4 kg. At the same time if the brick has in cavity, then it will weigh less. Therefore during design do not take the weight of each brick but only specific laying, that is the weight of 1 cubic meter of construction material plus weight of necessary quantity of cement slurry in attention.
Specific weight of laying can fluctuate ranging from 600kg/m³ up to 1800 kg/m³ and directly depends on the weight of each brick. Having calculated the weight of future building on projecting phase, it is possible to introduce amendments in mortgaging of the base, having made thus design stronger and reliable.
Size of brickwork constructions
Design size size will always be to the multiple width of brick. If to speak about standard dimension of facing brick, then this size will be 120 mm. Depending on quantity of layers, width of wall can be 120, 250, 380, 510 mm, etc. At this calculation 10 mm of seam between bricks are surely considered.
The exception of the rule can be considered only thin partitions which are put from the ceramic brick located on edge. Respectively in this case width of partition corresponds to brick width – 65 mm.
Apertures and short piers are always projected so that they were multiple to the brick size. Otherwise there is need of cutting of bricks of the necessary size that considerably increases labor input of process.
The brick always was and will be popular construction material. This product is difficult to replace with something in modern construction, thanks to its high technical characteristics. So if you have conceived to build the own house, by all means it should be taken into account bricks as parent material for work. Despite the simplicity, bricks are very different that gives the chance to realize unusual design intentions and the most original ideas.