Table of Contents
Steel concrete blocks are widely used in construction of facilities of different function. Products are applied at construction of the bases, wall panels and partitions. Blocks are provided in broad specific variety where elements differ in the field of use and the size. Concrete products are characterized by high technical and functional performance that is regulated by the existing normative documents.
Steel concrete blocks: design features of products
The steel concrete block is carried out in the form of rectangular parallelepiped which is made of concrete with strengthening by iron fittings. From the edge parties the product has the vertical cavities necessary for reliable connection of elements at forming of laying. For this purpose hollow places in trapezoid prisms are filled with solution. On the upper plane two metal brackets for implementation of handling actions in transit of steel concrete blocks and performance of installation works are located.
Are applied by concrete goods at construction of the bases of objects at zero stage of construction, walls of cellars, first floors, forming of combined continuous footings, construction of rooms of technical assignment, pedestrian underpasses, residential units. It is also possible to use concrete blocks for fence.
Correctly picked up modifications and dimensions of products, thanks to ability to evenly distribute loading, will provide rigid base and immovability of framework of constructions.
Concrete products are made at the vibropressing method plants that provides the high level of durability, reliability and rigidity of blocks. Are made by concrete goods of concrete of classes from B7.5 to B15. Ready working mix is filled in in special forms where solution gives in to pressing. Finished products are stood under certain conditions, getting the necessary level of durability.
Characteristic advantages and shortcomings of steel concrete blocks
Blocks differ in the increased frost resistance, moisture-proofness, low heat conductivity, resistance to temperature fluctuations and fire exposure that allows to use them in regions with different weather conditions. Blocks are capable to sustain to 50 cycles.
Products are characterized by vapor permeability, resistance to external influences, adverse chemical and biological factors, good sound-proof and heat-insulating properties, environmental friendliness, large-scale of resilience to static and dynamic loads, the long period of operation which reaches 100 years. It gives the chance to build the full-fledged house from concrete blocks.
Laying of steel concrete blocks is carried out by the principle of assembly of the designer that promotes reduction of amount of works and time, decrease in labor expenses. It in the best way is reflected in economic component of construction. When mounting products installation and the subsequent dismantling of timbering is not required. Besides after construction of design it is not necessary to wait for the concrete hardening moment.
Their big weight and bulkiness in this connection attraction of special equipment for performance of masonry works is required belong to shortcomings of blocks. At construction of the bases from blocks the insufficient tightness in zone of abutting connections is observed that demands arrangement of waterproofing. One more shortcoming the high cost of concrete blocks in comparison with other construction materials is considered.
Kinds of steel concrete blocks depending on assignment
All steel concrete blocks, irrespective of dimensional parameters, can be separated into three types: FBS, FBV and FBP.
The most widespread in construction is the type of FBS blocks. From them the block bases, crossing points in basements, walls of constructions are built. The sizes of steel concrete blocks are various that is reflected in special marking. The increased resistance to actual loads and low coefficient of thermal conductivity belong to distinctive advantages of products. Mounting of elements can be carried out on sand-hand-pitched stone subbase or directly on the soil.
FBV blocks are provided by monolithic constructions and are manufactured exclusively to order for certain construction object. The main distinctive feature of elements is longitudinal dredging which is used for laying of utilities. Products are issued 880 mm long, 580 mm high and 400, 500 and 600 mm wide. Concrete of B7.5 brand is applied to production of blocks above. These elements in undergrounds of technical assignment and ceiling area of basement constructions keep within.
Products FBP represent hollow concrete blocks. They are issued 238 cm long. In elements emptiness of square section are located. Such blocks are incapable to sustain considerable loading as do not differ in high strength. However they are characterized by high heat-insulating properties. FBP should be used at construction of easy buildings, frame constructions, construction of partitions in cellars. These blocks are manufactured of M150 brand concrete which is reinforced by TOR-steel. Hollow constructions differ in higher cost. It is connected with labor-consuming technology of their production.
Types of room steel concrete units depending on length and type of concrete
The steel concrete block is issued 20-240 cm long. Also width and height of products are standardized. All blocks can be separated into short, average and long. The first option of designs is characterized by the small weight reaching 31.7 kg. Dimensions of concrete block ‒ 20х20х40 cm.
Concrete blocks for columns and other buildings 1180 mm long, 280 and 580 mm high, 400, 500 and 600 mm wide belong to elements of the average size. Large-size products are issued 2380 mm long, 580 mm high and 300-600 mm wide with step of increase in the size of 100 mm.
Different types of blocks can be made of heavy, light structure or claydite. In the first case concrete of M250, M300 and M400 brands which provides density of products to 2400 kg/m ³ is applied. One element has weight from 300 kg that depends on the product size. Blocks from concrete of high specific weight are characterized by high rates of frost resistance, heat conductivity.
It is important! If by production of blocks granite filler has been used, they can be applied to construction of buildings on sour soil.
For light structure the concrete mixes of B100 and B150 brands providing concrete density from 1800 kg/m ³ are used. The weight of concrete block is in limits of 0.3-1.63 t. Such products are used for construction on dry soil.
By production claydite blocks haydite which is characterized by high heat-insulating properties is applied. However products imbue quickly by moisture that demands the organization of waterproofing course for protection of designs. Density of material is less than 1800 kg/m ³. The weight of one product consists within 260-1500 kg. This type of blocks is used for construction of small light-weight constructions, such as garage or bath.
Features of marking of concrete products
Each manufacturer which is engaged in production of concrete blocks carries out their marking that is regulated by the existing standard. Such designation of products allows to obtain the complete information about type and the sizes of concrete blocks. The price of products can also depend on these characteristics.
Important! Marking of all concrete products is necessary to define the necessary quantity of elements for performance of the set construction task.
Three capital letters in the name of steel concrete blocks indicate product type, providing information on features of the structure of design. Further the digital index which consists of group of digits that is specified by block dimensions in decimeters follows. At the same time it is necessary to consider that all values are rounded to integer. For example, the block 118 cm long, 40 cm wide, 28 cm high will have designation FBS 12-4-3.
Kinds of wall concrete blocks and field of their use
Concrete blocks for walls are applied to wall construction and partitions. They can be hollow and corpulent. The first option is suitable for works on construction of walls of buildings. Corpulent concrete blocks recommend to use for creation of the bearing support, the bases of basement and technical rooms.
Products are issued different forms and the sizes. Concrete blocks can be strengthened by the reinforcing component or have the special dredging applied to laying of armature. Irrespective of it, products are divided into subspecies that is defined by specifics of use. Many producers have in the product range decorative concrete blocks for facing of facade. They have different color and texture. The products imitating fragmentary stone are in great demand.
Cloisonne concrete articles have the small weight and thickness. Tongue-and-groove elements differ in specific form that allows to lower costs of masonry material and build construction in the shortest possible time. Concrete blocks with internal openings provide convenience at transfer and mounting of products. Monolithic elements and floor slabs are used for creation of the bearing wall designs.
Hollow elements can be strengthened or facilitated. Also they are separated into one-hollow, two-hollow and three-hollow blocks. Some producers release slot-hole products which have 4-8 parallel slots. For creation of crossing points, construction of door and window openings, when constructing facilities for removal of water, supply of communications, laying of the buried wiring is used P-or U-shaped concrete structures. Complementary products act as elements of irregular shape.
Characteristic and kinds of steel concrete rings
Steel concrete rings make of cement mix by filling method in special form where armature keeps within. Products are widely used at construction of wells, tunnels, filtrational and gas pipeline systems, for laying of utilities.
Steel concrete rings are issued with folds and without them. Simple products have smooth and flat edges. Rings with folds are characterized by dredging at the basis and ledges at end face. Such elements will promote creation of reliable and pressurized construction from rings which fasten among themselves by means of lock connections.
Depending on assignment that is reflected by marking of products, steel concrete rings are divided into the following types:
- basic products which are put to the base of well;
- the wall rings stacked in the made narrower areas of wells;
- elements for gas and water wells;
- the rings intended for collectors and networks of water disposal;
- products for water treatment systems.
Important! Steel concrete rings release in the form of the normal products and elements completed with the bottom and overlapping of the corresponding size.
In case of construction of the facility of considerable width where several rings will be necessary, it is possible to order monolithic construction which is carried out by the individual sizes. In that case there are no seams that excludes the probability of leaks.
Steel concrete rings are issued round or square shape. Outside diameter of products – from 84 to 220 cm, internal – from 70 to 200 cm. Wall thickness – 7-10 cm. Standard value of height are parameters 29, 59 and 89 see. The first size is characteristic of the rings having the inside diameter of 70 cm, and the last – for products dimension of 2 m.
How to build the cellar of concrete blocks: sequence of actions
The cellar is often used for storage of products and other things. It is better to do construction of the semi-buried type as in this case the probability of flooding of the room is excluded by underground waters. Concrete blocks are made of concrete of high specific weight and characterized by consistency value of 2 t/m ³.
First of all the site for construction is chosen. It is marked by pegs with drawing axes of the building. According to marking the ditch which depth is defined by dimensions of construction is developed and has to make not less than ½ heights of construction. After performance of earthwork operations carry out drainage, alignment, horizon and consolidation of the bottom of ditch. On the basis the sand-crushed-stone pillow 15 cm high keeps within. Adding becomes impregnated with water and is condensed.
By means of diagonal measurements right angles of construction are defined. Further the contour of waterproofing material for protection of elements of the base is located. The roofing material or concrete solution strengthened by the tied-up reinforcing rods is for this purpose used.
As concrete blocks for walls of the cellar have sufficient weight, their laying is carried out with involvement of the crane. On waterproofing angle units keep within. The laying of concrete blocks is carried out by the principle of construction of brick wall. For connection of elements the masonry concrete mortar 2 cm thick is used. Each row should be checked for horizontal position.
Important! When laying the base from blocks it is necessary to leave ventilating gaps in design.
Each subsequent number of concrete blocks the hands keeps within on solution and by the principle of shift of elements ties with the previous row. If in the basis plates pillows are applied, the central parts of FBS of the second row it is necessary to arrange over vertical joints of these plates or in middle part of gap between them. Intervals between plates are concreted.
Upon termination of construction of the last row the wreath of the base is brought to timbering on all perimeter and creation of concrete grillage is carried out. After removal of timbering outside part of design is covered with waterproofing material and takes cover rolled. Backfilling of ditch is made.
Secondary use of steel concrete blocks at construction of constructions
For construction of the base of the cellar, construction of garage or other small uninhabited construction it is possible to use safely the steel concrete blocks which were in the use. It will allow to save considerably on material that it will lead to reduction in cost of construction process.
However, buying second-hand steel concrete blocks, it is necessary to weigh all advantages and shortcomings of this action. The main advantage is rather low price of concrete blocks of 200х200х400 mm.
Before buying the blocks which were in the use can, each element is recommended to be checked for integrity of design, the correct geometry of product, for availability of visible microcracks, defects and corrosion processes of armature. Products have to have the whole fastening elements.
Important! Upon second-hand purchase of steel concrete blocks it is necessary to find out conditions and the period of operation of products that matters for the choice of the sphere of further use and application of protective measures.
Second-hand foundation blocks are not recommended to be used at the increased humidity and in the conditions of the lowered loadings.
How to make wall or ventilating steel concrete blocks in house conditions
Cement of M400 or M500 brand, sand with fraction no more than 1.5 mm, crushed stone and water will be necessary for production of concrete blocks the hands. Sand has to be purified from garbage and dirt. It is better to use career structure.
First of all dry components in the ratio 1 part of cement and 7-9 parts of fillers mix up, in structure liquid is gradually added to proportions 0.5 parts. When mixing solution special attention is paid to its consistence. Than weight is more liquid, especially the product will have low durability. For increase in strength indices, the moisture resistance and frost resistance can add the plasticizer to mix.
Helpful advice! Fast and effective production of solution for blocks will be provided by vibroinstallation.
Previously it is necessary to prepare special forms for steel concrete blocks. They are made of strong material which is capable to sustain the considerable weight of finished products. For this purpose silicone, iron timberings or forms from the laminated plywood will approach. The form has to be such size to receive ready concrete block of 400х200х200 mm. It is also possible to execute preparations for vague elements of 200х200х200 mm in size which will be able to be used in the course of construction as complementary blocks.
Forms for concrete blocks of 20х20х40 cm are oiled lubricating or special lubricant that will promote easier extraction of product from timbering. Further containers are filled with ready solution with the subsequent its reinforcing, then its careful consolidation is carried out. For obtaining emptiness it is possible to use the bottles which are previously oiled.
After shrinkage and preliminary hardening of mix that comes in 1-2 days, the product is taken out from form and stored in the dry room with good ventilation until full range of durability. For this purpose not less than 2-4 weeks are required.
From correctly picked up for type and the size of steel concrete blocks reliability and durability of future building depend. Use of products reduces duration of zero cycle, accelerates process of performance of work, reducing labor costs and amount of masonry material. However in this case it is worth to remember about quite high price of concrete blocks. Thanks to high technical and utilization properties of material it will be possible to build the strong building which will not cause any problems for many decades.