Table of Contents
Walking on curved small streets of the ancient cities, involuntarily you notice how beautifully and nobly the stone blocks put couples centuries ago looks. Bricks are rubbed by time, on them there have passed thousands of legs, but paths are still strong and equal. Thanks should be told masters of that ancient time who have not regretted forces and patience completely to observe difficult technology of laying. Once one brick drops out – and all work will come to nothing.
The instruction for paving is simple, but demands knowledge of some construction nuances and performance of the accurate sequence of all stages. For example, you should not miss such important point as check of condition of soil in the expected place of laying. From the geological point of view estimate soil condition, and from design – choose the most suitable design.
Design and marking
The project of construction from sidewalk stone blocks includes several points which observance will simplify works further. It only seems that it is easy to lay path from stone blocks (has spread out bricks – and it is ready). Actually, the sidewalk – difficult technical construction therefore preliminary works include:
- load level assessment on path surface;
- calculation of out-to-out measures of construction;
- the solution of questions of water disposal taking into account biases;
- choice of configuration and color of stone blocks;
- calculation of amount of material;
- choice of way of laying;
- drawing up step-by-step plan.
The paving division of land helps to simplify the beginning of works: on all perimeter of paths drive in small stakes and connect them construction cord at the level equal to the upper edge of the sidewalk.
Let’s consider simpler option which is not burdened by the water disposal system, but acceptable for the seasonal dacha.
Preparation of the working site
Preliminary preparation of the soil will be required: for this purpose along marks remove top fertile layer (the turf, humus). Depth of removal depends on the stone blocks sizes taking into account the basis prepared for laying. Strict standards do not exist, but trenches of 0.2-0.6 m in depth usually turn out. In addition remove the remains of plants (sprouts, roots) and condense soil if it is unstable.
Sometimes under remote top layer it is possible to find layers of low-permeable views of the soil to which unstable types belong:
- black soil.
They are not suitable for basis therefore depth of trench should be increased, and to compensate the withdrawn layer, having replaced it with technical soil with useful properties, for example, crushed stone or gravel.
Along with structure of the soil consider level of underground water. Inadmissibly, that it exceeded the paving level therefore carrying out additional drainage works is possible. The way of preparation of ditch or trench depends usually on the sizes. For constructions of small scale, for example, of country paths, there are enough handworks. Paving of the big area demands participation of the construction equipment: scrapers, bulldozers, graders.
Profiling of zone of mounting
Seldom happens that the path or the sidewalk passes on ideally smooth surface, on the way heights or descents meet more often. Besides at dachas where there are a lot of trees, beds, constructions, path often curl and wind, but do not lie strictly on straight line. Therefore, it is necessary to consider turns, descents, curves, that is to correlate construction to features of landscape.
If nevertheless have decided to carry out drainage works, it is necessary to remember the following. For removal of rain waters use sewage pipes. Waters leave by gravity therefore it is necessary to determine the level of their inclination – usually it is equal to 2-4%, these are about 2-4 cm by 1 m of pipe length.
Soil roughnesses of bottom of ditch smooth, filling up hollows with coarse-grained sand. The sandy layer, as a rule, does not exceed 1 cm. Consolidation by means of tamper – one more obligatory stage, as stability of the basis – necessary technology condition.
Laying of borders
Borders or as they are called still, curbs define borders of sidewalks and paths. It is necessary to choose them, proceeding from assignment of construction and load of it. Often exterior of borders corresponds to color and texture of stone blocks. Except esthetic function, borders are important from purely technical aspect: they “hold” path form, protect it from destruction and fix border between stone blocks and soil, smoothing difference of heights.
The most wearproof are the curbs made of concrete. For their mounting prepare the basis, using moist concrete. Between the next elements it is necessary to leave the free, not filled with solution gaps 0.3 cm wide.
Preparation of the basis under laying
Soil poured is also carefully stamped, the following stage – forming of the basis under stone blocks. It is necessary to understand that stone blocks has certain weight which increases at operation of paths. The weak and shaky basis will provoke fast destruction of design, and correctly prepared will provide stability and reliability.
As the best material for the main pillow serves crushed stone (fraction of 10-40 mm) or the similar sizes gravel. Thickness of layer is about 0.1-0.2 m, but these are not final parameters. After obligatory ramming the charge will settle approximately for 10-20%.
The top layer of pillow contains elements of different fraction. Larger particles are necessary in order that the layer of upper adding did not mix up with gravel basis. Stability of layers will not allow stone blocks to sink or move across.
Arranging paths at the dacha or sidewalks around cottage, it is not necessary to do too volume basis, there are quite enough 0.2 m. If the road is intended for the movement of cars (for example, entrance on the seasonal dacha), the pillow 35-45 cm thick is required.
Adding layer device
Bulk layer at observance of the correct equipment gives the chance most precisely, densely and filigree to arrange stone blocks elements. Let’s dwell upon digits:
- As material serves the elimination of filling brick of crushed fines of 0-0.4 cm or sand (sifted) of 0-0.7 cm. Cement and sand mix categorically does not approach.
- For the device of paths of different function thickness of layer should not be less than 4-5 cm.
- Adding is leveled so that height of the mounted stone blocks was 1 cm higher than the planned indicator. One excess centimeter is useful when it is required to level the next elements (height of tiles after laying sometimes does not match).
Finishing ramming of adding will happen later when the design is completely collected. For this purpose use the special vibrating shovel compactor equipped with rubber pad.
Paving – laying of elements of stone blocks
The leveled adding demands the accurate address therefore not to break surface of the prepared basis, works should be conducted from borders to the center. Support for further actions is the laid stone blocks. When mounting each row to avoid mistakes, it is necessary to use construction cord.
The way of arrangement of tiles depends on assignment of path. If the road is intended for motor transport, the corner of tile is located against the movement, that is the diagonal, providing stability laying type is applied. Edges of design will have free cavities between elements. They are accurately filled with exactly cut off pieces of tile (making about a half of the whole element).
Often different consignments of goods have differences in shades. That the surface of path looked homogeneous, it is necessary to use tile from different pallets, stacking it separately.
Filling of seams
The gaps which have remained between tiles need to be filled with sand. Any material will not approach, it has to be sand of fraction of 0-2 mm, without impurity, washed out, dried up. Larger fraction will not approach as grains of sand, getting stuck, will create irregularity of filling. Before vibrocompaction process residues of sand on surface delete. Perhaps, after the first ramming in intervals the blank sites will appear, therefore, it is necessary to repeat both charge, and ramming. Apply wetting to bigger optimization of process by water.
Width of seams of pedestrian paths – about 0.2-0.3 cm, for motor transportation roads of 0.3-0.5 cm. If after ramming seams are equal on the area of all design, so the technology of laying is observed, and road surfacing will serve long.
Too wide intervals between tiles threaten with the fact that the first rain will wash away sand and will break the surface of stone blocks. Excessively narrow intervals deprive covering of the elasticity necessary for maintaining integrity of elements.
Stone blocks vibrocompaction
When stone blocks is laid, and seams are filled up and stamped, it is necessary to make once again additional, already final consolidation of elements. The surface of covering should be dried up and cleaned from sand and garbage carefully. Special purpose tool — the vibrating plate for consolidation — is supplied with thick rubber pad which protects stone blocks from blows, softening them. At the same time it prevents sand to get from seams on surface of elements and to be late in time, breaking structure of material and its color.
Works carry out in the direction from edges of path to the center. As a result height of elements has to reach the planned parameters. If stability is broken or there are gaps on site of seams, their additional filling is required.
Result of carefully thought over and performed operations – smooth, equal on all square, the stable path having seams, identical by the sizes. If notes to road surfacing from stone blocks do not arise any more, so it it is prepared for use.