Table of Contents
The stucco molding from plaster always is fashionable, and its application in finishing will make interior unique and unique. Even in small amount if it is skillfully made and competently applied, the similar decor will become refined addition and will favourably emphasize room advantages. Besides, the stucco molding will help to correct visually space and to hide different roughnesses on surface of ceiling and walls.
Decor from plaster: positive and negative characteristics
Application of modelled decor from plaster as finishing material in the house or the apartment will give to situation originality, grace and luxury. The stucco molding will allow to create unusual visual effects like volume deepenings in walls or infinite extent of ceiling. If there are errors at finishing, it will close joints and slots, will add lines of connection of different surfaces and materials, will hide processing equipment and communications: pipes, electrical wiring, air vents.
Also as merits of plaster decor it should be noted:
- accurate relief and ideal edges;
- ecological security;
- fire resistance;
- resistance to temperature differences;
- long term of operation;
- ease in processing and coloring.
The plaster product does not burn, does not burst from heat and cold, freely absorbs and gives moisture, serves for centuries, is easily recovered in case of damage. Considering these qualities, it is possible to use also safely modelled decor from plaster for finishing not only in rooms, but also on the surface of facades.
There is not a lot of shortcomings as advantages, but they need to be known:
- vulnerability to mechanical damages;
- complexity in mounting;
- high cost.
Plaster – material not construction, but finishing therefore its durability is not comparable to durability of brick, concrete or mounting solution. Products from plaster are more vulnerable to damages. However, being decor elements, they are also not intended for high loadings. At the same time mounting, in view of the decent weight of ready elements, is sometimes complicated, especially at ceiling installation. This work demands certain skills and the equipment.
Hygroscopicity – one of important positive characteristics of plaster products, at the same time it can be also shortcoming (conditional). Plaster cannot be used in rooms with excess humidity without application of gidrofobization – covering moisture protective structure. The high cost as shortcoming, is also conditional factor. Having shown imagination and creativity, it is quite possible to make small modelled parts of plaster the hands.
Types of products from plaster and their assignment in interior
The history of creation of plaster stucco molding originates in times of Rome and Ancient Greece. This type of decor by right is considered one of the oldest, found application during different eras throughout all history. The complete picture from stucco molding can be received, using it as the designer, connecting different parts and elements. It should be noted that the seamlessness of connection is one of key good points.
What it is possible to make of plaster? Basic elements of modelled decor are:
- the ceiling eaves ‒ are applied to overlapping and dressing of places of adjunction of walls with ceiling;
- molding ‒ decorative insert for overlapping of slots or division of finishing materials;
- the socket ‒ masks opening, mounting fixtures, the place of supply and connection of electrical wiring;
- bas-relief ‒ the convex image which is a little acting over the background plane;
- bracket ‒ element for fastening to walls and columns of the whole objects or their parts;
- column ‒ part of architectural decor which can also carry out support of ceiling overlapping;
- niche ‒ different form deepening in wall which serves as decorative element or the place for placement of the shelf, the rack or cabinet.
The modern stucco molding is more improved on characteristics, and process of its creation has already poorly general with process of molding of ancient architects. However the magnificence and the cumulative visual effect at the same time are not less naturalistic. It is possible to increase uniqueness of decorative products, having made them of plaster independently. For this purpose it is only required to get special forms and dry plaster blend. How to make form for plaster with own hands in house workshop, it will be considered further in article.
Helpful advice! It is the best of all to carry out production and mounting of plaster elements, being guided by special process, but not the advice of the friends and acquaintances. It will serve as guarantee that the product will not collapse after a while.
Depending on complexity of decorative element different technologies can be applied: casting with broach or filling in form, molding. All these ways can quite be mastered and with success to apply as at home, and in the business purposes. So, we will consider that it is possible to make from plaster with own hands, using different methods of molding of elements of decor.
Manufacturing techniques of smoothed plaster eaves
Most often the casting method with broach which is suitable as well for mass production is applied to creation of original forms of ceiling eaves from plaster. The main difference of this way from classical casting in form is profiling of surface by means of mobile metal template.
It is convenient to make template of sheet iron (tin). Scissors on metal and other auxiliary tools cut out opening in the form of profile of future eaves. The cut of profile is carried by emery materials to final operating condition. The ready template is fixed in the wooden equipment which can move on guides.
The working surface is greased with the structure promoting easy sliding of template and allowing to remove finished product without efforts. Stearin mix with kerosene, as a rule, is the cornerstone of lubricant structure, but at their absence use of lubricating or vegetable oil is also possible. The cement of plaster is applied on working surface in template moving direction. The structure is selected by practical consideration. In practice for receiving liquid cement of plaster on 1 l of water add 1 kg of plaster, for average density – 1.5 kg, and for dense – 2 kg.
Then on the cement of plaster laid and thickened to consistence of sour cream for receiving profile of future product slowly and smoothly the template moves. So repeats several times before receiving hollow section of plaster eaves. After hardening the cement of plaster will increase in volume a little. Therefore it is necessary to make prefinal broach for cutting of excesses in addition. The final broach with small amount of liquid solution will finally create ideally smooth and plain surface.
On the same technology it is possible to make molding. Such insert can be used in combination with eaves or instead of it. As a rule, it is mounted before finishing finishing, but not after it.
Technology and materials for production of plaster sockets
Sockets from plaster as elements of decor of ceiling opening in the place of suspension of the central chandelier harmoniously look in different styles and can be used to registration of side lighting. In this case the casting method in form is used. The manufacturing techniques consist of several stages.
First of all the model is made of available material: cement slurry, clay, tree, plasticine, stone, etc. Also the finished factory product can serve as model. Then from it the mold (form) – some kind of “negative” of future product is removed. By means of this form the necessary number of castings is made of plaster.
High-strength plaster of fine crushing, for example, of GVVS-16 forms the general basis for production of all types of products. As well as any other material, plaster has the features – fast grasp with insignificant heating and increase in volume. For strengthening of durability of castings it is possible to bring water emulsions of synthetic pitches and other materials in plaster “dough”.
Helpful advice! The cement of plaster needs to be applied right after preparation as it keeps flowability only 2-3 minutes, and plasticity – 6-8 minutes. For delay of grasp as additive it is possible to use pure skin glue or vinegar. The knitting properties of the grabbed cement of plaster cannot be recovered water.
The socket consists of two parts – basis and decorative elements on its surface. Therefore it is possible to apply both casting method in pure form, and combination of casting and broach which we have considered slightly above. It is also possible to use broach for creation only of basis for model of future product, and already all socket if desired is cast in form from plaster.
First of all, for creation of basis the working surface, as well as in case of casting with broach, becomes covered by lubricant structure. Then in the center on axis the radial ruler with the hammered nail by means of which the contour of future product is put fastens. After that the working surface becomes covered by cement of plaster and the template with profile of basis for the socket is put on the central axis. The technology is similar to previous, however the profile moves not longwise, and on circle. The technique completely repeats.
After production of basis of the socket it is necessary to make and fix on it decorative elements. Their variety can be limited only to imagination and sense of proportion. For them the casting method in form is applied to stucco molding. Production of template will not require the highly professional equipment – quite enough amateur house workshop.
From what and how to make plaster mold for casting
The template or original product is necessary for creation of form. What is remarkable, all work techniques can be connected with plaster among themselves for creation of any of decor elements. For example, models of decorative elements of the socket and other types of stucco molding can be made by molding method.
During creation of form for the stucco molding from plaster applied to decorative elements which then will fasten on basis as flask there is quite enough use of rigid cardboard. For casting of all socket it is entirely better to use overlaid plywood which will not be damaged by the big mass of plaster. During the work with cardboard it is convenient to apply adhesive tape to fastening of walls, and plywood will require nails and self-tapping screws. Slots between walls coat with plasticine. The flask can consist both of one part, and of two half depending on dimensions of required product.
The model becomes covered by lubricant structure and is placed in the center of flask on thin props from plastic or extensions from threads. The cement of plaster is applied with brush on difficult places (the line and the hollow) and filled in to the level of expected joint of halves of flask. After jelling it is necessary to check, how well the model separates from the lower half. Then its surface and upper part become covered by lubricant structure, upper half of form is filled in.
Helpful advice! As production of model, preparation of form, process of casting and operation on processing of figures from plaster are connected by the hands with emergence of large amount of dust, ventilation has to be provided and also high-quality cleaning of the room is necessary. You should not be engaged in it in premises. Also it is necessary to avoid use of naked flame in view of potential of explosion of mix of air and dust in certain concentration.
After full drying it is possible to remove upper half of flask and to remove template. Useful everything will be attentive to examine and to liquidate shortcomings. Now the form for plaster the hands is ready. Before filling of working mix its every time needs to be covered with lubricating stuff inside, and after filling to clean from garbage. From the first it can not turn out. As well as any other craft, production of products from plaster the hands demands skill and experience.
Stucco molding from plaster: bas-reliefs and materials for their production
This technology is the most labor-consuming way of creation of stucco molding, but also yields at the same time the exclusive results having charm and attractiveness. Contrary to ordinary opinion on indescribable complexity and high cost, creation of pictures from plaster the hands is quite available way of dressing depending only on patience and imagination of the master. For this purpose even construction skills and art education are optional.
The molding from plaster on wall perfectly is suitable for implementation in spacious premises. In addition to the plaster which is traditionally applied to these purposes for molding, modern technologies allow to use also construction mixes with polymeric additives (in use ‒ acrylic plaster). Even more refined composition – mix of plaster, acrylic plaster and glue is very popular.
One of the most widespread elements of decor made on technology of molding of plaster is the bas-relief ‒ the convex image, the sculptural relief acting over the background plane no more than on half of volume. For increase in volume bronze or gilding, and for effect of old times – patinating is used. The bas-relief can be technology executed as directly on wall, and parts on working surface then fastens on wall.
To make combined bas-relief easier to the beginning master as there is opportunity to work on separate elements, without mentioning picture in general. And the molding from plaster on wall optional has to be big product or full-fledged bas-relief. It can be small and simple elements, for example, plaster flowers or niche frame in the form of rod and vegetable patterns. Such niche will perfectly serve for visual increase in volume of space.
Helpful advice! It is not necessary to place bas-relief on weak walls from gypsum cardboard or partitions from foam aerated concrete as the bearing basis is obliged to be stronger than material of which the composition is made.
Molding on wall: tools and main stages of work
Certain set of tools is necessary for work with plaster molding. With skill the need for use of set of various palettes for molding (palette knives), knives, brushes and confectionery syringes with nozzles will come. At initial stage it is quite possible to manage in couple of knives, spoon and indispensable attribute – half of rubber ball (for batch of working mix).
The wall has to be without fail leveled with an accuracy of 2 mm/m, primed and is cleaned. Further the covering basic structure follows and background plaster with toning of basis is carried out. Drawing relief is carried out by method of direct molding or by means of prefabricated elements. If necessary the dried relief is tinted and painted with special paints. After drying of paint take faded form, but final covering styrene butadiene latex recovers their brightness.
After preparation of wall it is required to make the sketch of future composition. It will facilitate work in general and will allow to reveal problem places on working surface. The repeating parts can be put by means of the cliches prepared in advance from dense paper or cardboard. And also stucco molding elements are made of plaster on casting practice which was considered above.
Forming of modelled bas-relief is made layer-by-layer. Working mix for plaster molding is applied with brush and the confectionery syringe, and then leveled and formed by knives palette knives. During creation of color bas-relief the batch of each layer is tinted by means of pigment for plaster with reduction of concentration in process of growth of relief. Giving of the invoice is made on even wet mix by brush and it happens on dry mix by abrasive paper.
Subtleties in work at production and mounting of plaster stucco molding
During creation of bas-relief with vegetable elements of branch, depending on thickness, it is the most convenient to remove the confectionery or medical syringe. Thickness, in turn, is regulated by effort of pressing to the syringe piston. The invoice is directed by brush, and breaks form by means of palette knife. Also branches can be made of the twine wetted in dense working solution, and then which is dried up on working surface. Finished products then fasten on abutment.
For creation of bas-relief with round shapes (high relief) the wire frame or the thin metal gauze is often used. The method of so-called free plastering is applied to performance of high flower bas-reliefs. At the same time artificial flowers or disposable napkins form basis. Several times they are dipped into liquid working solution and dry in the same situation in which will be located in ready composition. Actions repeat before creation of layer of plaster (photos clearly demonstrate it) in 1-1.5 mm.
Helpful advice! It is the best of all to carry out fastening of bas-reliefs to wall the corrugated nails with the bitten hat hammered into plastic dowels. Depending on massiveness of bas-relief or its elements, nails of different length and thickness are used. Connection is made in places of the greatest height of relief, but not less than 1-1.5 cm.
So, to decorate walls with stucco molding from plaster the hands ‒ not such and difficult invention. The imagination, assiduity and application of recommendations from this article will help to achieve success in it.