Table of Contents
The modern medicine claims that the optimum formula of thermal comfort for the dwelling of the person makes at floor 24-26 °C, and at the level of the head of 20-22 °C. Such temperature condition cannot be created by any of the heating devices which are traditionally used in normal buildings whether it be radiator, the battery, the heater or the convector. Correctly in terms of medicine and physiologically comfortable heat to the house are capable to bring only modern heating services – heat-insulated floors.
And if in multifamily house with long-distance heating it is possible to use only the systems working at electricity, then in country, built specially under needs of his owners, it is the best of all to apply water system.
Difference of such heating not only in creation of comfortable temperature, it has row and other merits. So the heat-insulated floor differs from any normal heater in what does not create convection flows at all, and it leads to the fact that in rooms there will practically be no dust which is in the air. Especially it is important for the people suffering from different allergic frustration and children of any age. The heat-insulated floor for children’s rooms is irreplaceable also because usually on floor kids are located with the toys. Any carpet will not be able to save the child from the cold arriving from not heated-up overlappings.
Heat-insulated floors distribute warmly evenly on all room, with the direction to ceiling up, but not back as it happens to usual heating systems. Closeness and drafts is not created. At the level of legs of people feels pleasant heat, and comfortable cool – around the head.
The following important plus – the system does not take away any centimeter from the useful area of the room, and at interior there will be no inevitable attributes of domestic industrial style: radiators, batteries, convectors. It is necessary to recognize that room height slightly will decrease as floor will rise, hiding heat insulator and pipes. The heat insulator is necessary in order that heat was given up, but did not go to draft floor.
In comparison with other heat carriers water has high heat capacity. Besides hot-water heating can use any cheap kinds of fuel (gas, firewood, coal, fuel oil, etc.) for heating. Therefore such systems demand considerably smaller expenses, than electric.
Water heating has one more advantage – possibility of self-regulation – the terminations of heat emission after air temperature and floor become identical. It allows not to use the special regulating equipment in the rooms which are not demanding maintenance of high accuracy of temperature.
Heat-insulated floors have come to us from the distant past. In century prior to the beginning of our era ancient Romans built baths in which temperature was maintained thanks to floor heating. Now “heat-insulated floors” very famous are also tested long ago by many Russians. But the person who for the first time has faced variety of the choice can quite become puzzled. What of types of floor to choose, what will be more optimum, safer, and what is cheaper?
Device of heat-insulated water floors
First of all, it is necessary to know that as it was already said that water floors are used only in cottages or country houses. Water floor will be out of competition when there is need for heating of the big areas. Water floor represents heating services which as element of heating uses the pipes filled with hot water. Such pipes under tie keep within floor. Do not use it in multifamily houses as in this case hydraulic pressure amplifies. And it cannot be connected to the system of hot central water supply especially.
From technical aspect water floor is the pipes which are carrying out through themselves the heat carrier, usually hot water. After heating in special system, for example, in gas boiler, water is distributed evenly on twisting pipes, providing the equal and stable heat distributed on all surface of floor. Between draft floors and floor covering the network of mini-pipelines which pass through themselves water of necessary temperature is mounted. It is possible to tell that heat-insulated floors – only which allow to distribute warmly so evenly that there will never be feeling of cold in one place and it is warm in other place.
The following advantage – mounting of heat-insulated water floor can be begun at stage of construction of the house. Though projects of water floors are more difficult, they also are more reliable, than electric heat-insulated floors. The resource of such system is expected 50 years at least. If it is necessary, then floor can be repaired. It can warm considerably the big areas, but at the same time remains to more economical in comparison with the system of electric heating. Initial material inputs on mounting of heat-insulated water floor exceed payment of installation of floor electric, but they become covered by further benefit at operation. Therefore application of such floor is quite perspective.
And one more advantage of water floor – lack of the ionization radiation which is surely arising when using floors using electric cable.
Systems of water heat-insulated floors
There are two systems of similar floors: concrete and flat. The choice of specific system depends on type of joist ceilings, on requirements imposed to floor and constructive opportunities of the room.
Over heat-insulated floor the fair finishing covering rendering great value on the choice of temperatures of the heat carrier keeps within. All applied materials have different heat conductivity therefore calculation has to happen to obligatory accounting of this indicator.
Today it is most widespread. In such system of different diameter (20, 17, 16 or 12 millimeters) of pipe are filled in with concrete then use of additional distributors of heat is not required.
Structurally from below up the concrete system looks as follows:
- Waterproofing course from polyethylene film of 80-100 microns.
- Polystyrine plates with thickness of 20-200 millimeters and with a density from 35 mg/m3. Thickness of plates depends on the thermal mode of the room and heatlosses of floor.
- The mesh reinforcement laid on polystyrine plates. Usually 150*150 millimeters with bar of 4-5 millimeters.
- Over mesh reinforcement – pipe with step to 100-300 millimeters. Keeps within on the chosen type according to the design decision. To mesh reinforcement of pipes it is attached by plastic collars (on 1 running meter of pipe 2-3 collars). Places of compensation seams are protected by the gofro-pipe which is put on pipe. Loops of heat pipe originate and come to an end without joints in the supply collector.
- On perimeter of the room the damping tape which compensates thermal expansion of concrete tie keeps within. It is applied and as compensation seam when mounting concrete tie on big squares with step to 10 meters.
- The concrete tie which is filled in after laying of loops, filling with the heat carrier of the mounted system and its hydraulic tests. Quality class from M-300 above, tie thickness – from 50 millimeters.
- Finishing flooring.
Without concrete (flat) system
The main difference from system concrete — lack of wet-mix processes. Provides saving of time and gives opportunity to use the system of heat-insulated floor at once upon termination of mounting. Approaches any load-carrying structures.
In flat systems uniform distribution of heat between pipes and surface of floor is provided by special aluminum plates, with step of laying of 300 and 150 millimeters. Plates have profile allowing them to adjoin densely to pipes.
When laying as finishing covering of the normal or laminated parquet (with thickness not less than 9 millimeters) frothed polyethylene or cardboard use as the moisture absorbing laying. If the PVC tile, ceramic tile or linoleum keeps within, then before it GVL plates are put on aluminum plates.
Similar schemes of laying mean availability of the rigid rigid base. If performance of this condition is impossible, for example, the wood beams laid with certain interval form the basis, then it is admissible to use the next way.
The space which is between beams is filled with the heater which is at the same time executing and sound-proof function. The surface is sewn up with tin corrugated plates. At corrugation of sheets form of the return trapeze, each leaf in new row it is necessary to bend when laying in such a way that it would be imposed on previous. On surface of sheets at distance 1.5-2 meters are placed indicators. Height of beacons is verified on level – they will serve for orientation during filling of concrete bed. Across corrugations with step to 30 centimeters the snake displays heating pipes. It is important that they have not been bent on radius, it is less specified in documentation. Pipes are fixed on sheets by metal perforated tapes by means of self-tapping screws. Also they can be attached to corrugated plates wiring brackets of the corresponding size. The pipe does not demand dense clip to the basis. The cement slurry keeps within on indicators step by step, filling dredging of corrugated plates.
Mounting of heating services
In spite of the fact that it is rather difficult design demanding accuracy and certain abilities it it is quite possible to collect independently. In each case a lot of things will depend on the used material, component parts and entry conditions, but the principle of mounting all the same will remain to the general. Let’s consider it on the example of laying of heat-insulated floors from the flexible copper pipes contracted into the bay with plastic cover in country house with a total area of 150 square meters.
Work begins with the fact that on edge of floor the isolating laying keeps within, and comes to an end with mounting of heating contours. Total quantity of contours – 13, they are connected to the 3rd distributing devices located at the different levels.
Before to begin heating mounting, it is necessary to finish works on plaster of ceiling and walls and installation of windows. The main surface of draft floor has to be purely swept and dry. If walls and half of the room adjoin to soil, heat insulation keeps within in advance. Distributing devices are connected to heating struts.
The isolating laying laid along edge of floor will compensate its thermal expansion and will protect from shock noise. Laying has to be laid so that to prevent their breakdown on outside and internal corners. They are put by film outside, then this film will cover edges of heat-insulating plates.
The basis is isolated depending on meta location of the room. For interfloor overlappings there are enough plates from solid foam material with thickness of 30 millimeters. If basement overlapping or external walls is isolated, then the additional layer of plates of the same thickness will be required. Besides plates can act also as material for alignment of basis.
Insulating plates are cut out so that they could be laid without admission closely to walls and each other. In top layer extreme plates are closed by the isolating film which will prevent leaking under solution plate during the device of concrete tie.
After preparation of the basis it is possible to pass to heating pipe fitting. It is necessary to remember that heating of floor is mounted strike forever, it cannot be remade if desired as it would be possible to arrive with radiator system. Therefore in advance it is necessary to resolve issues of whether it will become the only source of heat, whether it will be combined with normal batteries and also what will be finishing covering (carpet, laminate, ceramic tile, etc.). Depending on these basic data the optimum distance between the pipes stacked in contours of heating and their diameter will be defined.
For connection to the distributing device of the first delivery pipe, it has to be bent. First Line is laid along wall. Before carrying out turn, the pipe nestles on floor and is attached to it by brackets. Then the pipe is bent and passes into the following line. Through each 100 centimeters and on each turn the pipe fastens, depending on the chosen way, manually or the special stapler. The distance between pipes in 20 centimeters, in the zones which are near the big area of glazing is considered optimum, this step decreases up to 10 centimeters. Also more densely the pipe keeps within and in the places close from the distributing device – there will be rather high temperature drop between the lines of contour (giving also to the return).
Before fixing of pipe section, it has to be carefully exposed, it is impossible to pull pipe at all.
The heating contour of the adjacent room demands approximately whole bay of pipe (50 meters). The free pipe end is placed behind wall. Mounting of the first contour by the second bay connecting pipe ends comes to the end. Thus, the giving line after which it is necessary to lay the return line from the distributing device keeps within.
The big room demands laying of several contours therefore it is previously necessary to define the optimum scheme of the layout of pipes. In the case under consideration heating is available 4 contours, that is from the distributing device is stretched on 4 giving and the return to the line. Laying of pipe begins with contour which is most removed from the distributing device.
One of the most widespread schemes of laying can be chosen: twisting or two-row. At the twisting scheme of the line are laid independent. The two-row scheme means that the giving and return lines will pass in parallel. At two-row heating happens more evenly, the difference between water temperature in lines does not affect it (giving – 45, the return – 36). Also this scheme almost everywhere demands pipe bend in 90 degrees, and it allows to bend copper pipes manually. The turn by 180 degrees will be required in the middle of heating contour. Total length of contour cannot be more than 100 meters.
It is separately necessary to consider pipe joint process. Their end faces are accurately cut off for joining with each other. Since the ends of pipes isolation is removed, hangnails clean up the calibration tool. The end of one of the connected pipes is set in breadth and receive similarity of the coupling into which the second pipe is inserted. Final connection is made by means of soldering.
After cooling of the place of soldering the contour is molded. If the system works regularly, it is possible to start its filling by cement and sand tie which height should not be less than 3 centimeters. In cases when it is impossible to lift floor even on such height, it is possible to use special superthin mixes for filling of heat-insulated floor. After the cement and sand tie is laid, the monolithic basis in which pipes are built in turns out.
Pipes are connected to the main pipeline by means of adapters splitters or if it is necessary, guards automatic machines which sensor is put in tie between pipes.
After the system has undergone check, and the tie has dried, the floor covering is mounted. It is possible to use practically any material: sawn stone, porcelain tile, ceramic or stone tile, linoleum, laminate, parquet board, etc. However it is necessary to remember that the covering from wood at high temperatures can warp.
On it process of mounting of heat-insulated water floor is completed.
Rules of safe use
If in the house the system with water heat-insulated floor is applied, owners need to follow some safety rules and instructions:
- Guidance system of heating should not be modified without instructions of specialists.
- For avoiding of emergence of cracks heating of the heat-insulated floors established just should be carried out gradually.
- It is not recommended to bring work of system to high temperatures (over 45 degrees).
- It is necessary to consider constant of the period of thermal inertia, temperature change happens gradually (about 6 hours depending on design of system and covering). Any modifications of settings are made gradually. Incorrect and untimely changes in work will lead to essential temperature variation for all day.
- For the same reason it is not recommended to use thermostatic mixers in collectors of system.
- You should not switch-off energy source sharply. Repeated inclusion of system can be carried out not earlier than 8 hours after shutdown.
- If the system is expected not only heating, but also cooling, it is necessary to consider that the cooling heat-insulated floors have to correspond to type of finishing covering and have certain structure.
- To avoid emergence of condensate, the level of temperature of the water pumped in system has to be traced
- It is better not to use the cooling heat-insulated floor in kitchens, bathrooms and other similar rooms.
- Trial start of heat-insulated water floor is carried out before the beginning to drawing the pulling together covering, and the first working start – only in 3 weeks after its laying.
- If the first start is made in cold season, installation of setup of gradual heating is necessary. So in the first day the system works 2 hours, and then this time increases, gradually reaching extremely necessary.