Table of Contents
Operating conditions of bath differ from what the majority of buildings should face. Therefore, the question qualitative vapor barrier and heat insulations needs to pay special attention. Let’s consider, than to warm ceiling, floor, walls and what technology to give preference in bath to create suitable microclimate and to minimize heat waste, saving own efforts and resources.
What requires warming of ceiling in bath: features of the building
The bath is room which is exposed to periodic warming up for the purpose of adoption of improving procedures. Indoors the special microclimate which is characterized by high temperature and humidity forms. Of course, it cannot but have impacts on those construction materials which should be exposed to such influence.
Besides, it is necessary to reckon also with the expenses connected with use of this or that fuel quantity. If the building is inclined to fast cooling, maintenance of the corresponding temperature will require large amount of fuel. And considering the fact that according to laws of physics warm air easier cold, warming is demanded by roof of bath through which there is considerable loss of heat.
But on the way to construction of barrier to deduction of warm air indoors, there is one more aspect on which it is worth paying special attention to all owners of baths. The high humidity becomes source of emergence of large amount of condensate which, at the wrong warming of roof, can accumulate. It becomes frequent cause of destruction of wooden elements of the building.
Interesting fact! High humidity – the favorable environment for growth and development of different microorganisms: fungi, mold and bacteria. The unreasoned vapor barrier and heat insulation can become the reason of their emergence and reproduction.
Warming of ceiling in bath with cold roof depending on features of roof
The roof of bath can be provided by one of two types: having garret space and without it. In the first case, the air layer in itself creates quite effective barrier that positively affects ability of the building to keep warmly. But it does not mean at all that availability of the attic completely excludes need of work on warming.
If the attic or penthouse, then qualitative heat insulation – almost indispensable condition of further use of the building to destination is not provided in bath.
Regardless of what type of the room you had to face, the first and extremely important step – providing vapor barrier layer. For this purpose perfectly such available materials as aluminum foil, cardboard of high density which is previously impregnated with drying oil or wax paper will approach.
Helpful advice! If works on warming of ceiling in bath where there is attic-floor room, then from roof about 2-3 cm are recommended to cover ceiling boards with layer of clay are carried out.
Than to warm ceiling in bath: the best thermal insulation materials
In the course of bath kindling, temperature and humidity indoors reaches extremely high point. Therefore special requirements are imposed to construction materials which use in the course of arrangement of this room, namely, they have to be steady against similar influence and at the same time not emit dangerous substances when heating.
Besides, it is not recommended that the weight of heater was too big. It is more preferable to make the choice for light material, simple and convenient both in transportation, and in mounting. Well and of course, it is impossible to forget about such characteristic as fire resistance that is important for such room as bath.
Warming of ceiling of bath the hands: advantages and shortcomings of mineral wool
Mineral wool, certainly, the most popular option among all. It is often used for warming not only baths and garages, but also and for residential buildings. In itself, it is fibrous material which has excellent heat-insulating characteristics and can be provided in one of three types:
- glass wool;
- stone cotton wool;
- slag cotton wool.
But if the first option is familiar practically to everyone, then other two saw not all. Stone cotton wool is the material received generally from basalt though sometimes it is done also of other fusions of rocks. Slag cotton wool very much reminds slag stones for which production use blast furnace slags.
Besides that mineral wool has low heat conductivity that allows to apply it to heat insulation of ceilings and walls, it has one more essential advantage. Unlike other materials, it cannot serve as nutrient medium for microorganisms: fungi, mold, small insects or rodents that very opportunely for seasonal dachas.
As for other characteristics, mineral wool is not inclined to ignition and does not react to temperature drops in any way: it is not deformed and does not contract. The small weight and convenient packaging (it is normal in the form of rolls or rectangular plates) allow to work easily and conveniently with material even alone.
Of course, this material has also shortcomings with which anyway it is necessary to reckon:
- mineral wool is capable to absorb moisture;
- phenols which can potentially constitute health hazard of the person are its part.
Both these shortcomings can be neutralized in the course of mounting, having provided to heater qualitative vapor barrier and waterproofing, having completely excluded risk of contact of mineral wool with air under ceiling. In particular it concerns warm and humid air which concentrates indoors.
Helpful advice! In spite of the fact that at observance of all rules of mounting mineral wool does not pose real threat for health, in the course of its installation it is necessary to be careful and use protective equipment as its small fibers are capable to cause irritation of integuments and eyes.
Warming of ceiling in bath by haydite: features of use
Haydite is stones, small by the size, which consist of clay and have honeycomb. If to take all factors into account, then it is possible to call haydite the most suitable material for warming of ceiling in bath. Of course, if in the building the garret space is provided and there is possibility of its use.
With confidence it is possible to refer the following aspects to advantages of such choice:
- haydite is completely safe: it does not sustain combustion, is ecologically pure and even in case of fire will not allocate in the atmosphere of dangerous substances;
- eventually and also under the influence of external factors, haydite not to spoil and does not decay;
- material cost quite low;
- bacteria and fungi do not consider haydite the attractive environment for life activity.
Besides, haydite exceeds mineral wool and in ability not to absorb moisture. And though need to equip vapor barrier and waterproofing courses remains, nevertheless risk of accumulation of moisture in heater layer much less. It should be noted also the fact that the operational term of haydite one of the longest if to compare it to other materials.
Whether it is worth doing warming of ceiling by polyfoam from within
During certain period polyfoam was the leader among thermal insulation materials which used for warming not only baths, but also residential buildings. But with emergence alternative options, its essential shortcomings became noticeable. So, for example, in case of fire polyfoam well burns, at the same time also, allocating toxic smoke which is capable to do harm to human health.
Besides, polyfoam is not too steady against influence of external factors, collapsing under the influence of big temperatures that is inevitable in case of its use in bath.
For these reasons it is possible to draw conclusion that polyfoam not the most suitable material for this purpose and is better to give preference to another to steadier and suitable on characteristics material.
Use of ecocotton wool as heater for bath
One more material which enjoys popularity among heaters and is often used including for baths and garages – ecocotton wool. This fibrous material is made of cellulose, adding to it the special impurity designed to provide protection against insects, bacteria and rodents. Besides, they do ecocotton wool steady against ignition.
Refer environmental friendliness and also small weight and ability to fill with themselves even the smallest slots and gaps that is very convenient if it is about work with not too plain surface to advantages of this material. Any it is poisonous substances it does not allocate so, as well as haydite, is completely safe for human health.
But there is also essential shortcoming: the efficiency of use of ecocotton wool is directly connected with ventilation availability and also qualitative waterproofing course which is designed to take away moisture. It is connected with the fact that ecocotton wool in itself is very inclined to condensate absorption that has an adverse effect on its heat-insulating characteristics.
There are two ways of drawing this heat insulator on walls, so-called “dry” and “wet”. The main difference and at the same time complexity of the second option – need to use for this purpose the special equipment which rent will become the reason enough high quotations of warming of ceiling this way.
Warming of bath inside by means of mix from cement and sawdust
With confidence it is possible to call this way the oldest among all described as these materials were used for warming long before in the market in general such thermal insulation materials as polyfoam and mineral wool have appeared.
Interesting fact! Usually, for creation of suitable mix use cement and sawdust. Though we will quite allow option of replacement of these components by clay and straw.
First of all prepare dry mix which includes sawdust, lime and cement in the ratio 10/1/1 respectively. Having mixed all dry components, add 1.5 parts of water to them, pouring in it gradually and carefully mixing that solution has turned out homogeneous. After that it is necessary only to lay out mix on surface and to level it to even layer.
Specialists recommend to use sawdust which has undergone previously drying within several months for creation of such mix, and it is better even than the whole year.
In case of observance of all recommendations and technologies, as a result it is possible to receive quality, environmentally friendly material. Though it is necessary to recognize that on heat-insulating characteristics it nevertheless concedes also to mineral wool and even haydite. So, perhaps, its only advantage – the low cost which, nevertheless, involves very many efforts.
Features of arrangement of vapor barrier and waterproofing layers
Availability of vapor barrier layer is not whim, but real need. Especially if it is about such rooms as bath where hot air – integral part of use of the room to destination. Rising in the form of steam, moisture can have destructive impact on heater and promote emergence of mold and fungus on wooden elements of framework of bath.
To avoid problems which can result from accumulation of moisture on ceiling and walls special films and materials are applied to covering, for example, anti-condensate membranes. Choosing suitable material, it is desirable to get what has the foiled layer.
Helpful advice! In the course of mounting of vapor barrier film it is very important to pay attention to its integrity. It is necessary not to allow emergence of gaps as it is strong to be reflected in technical characteristics of covering.
For providing waterproofing use special films which can be got in hardware stores. The most ordinary polyethylene of sufficient density or cheap roofing material is sometimes applied.
Warming of flat ceiling the hands: step-by-step instruction
Flat ceiling – great option for constructions which are used seasonally and have the small area. But in such design there is no large number of the place for volume heater. Besides, big weight is also not capable to sustain such ceiling. Therefore it is worth approaching material selection more responsibly.
In order that there was enough place for isolation laying, the flat ceiling has to be placed slightly lower than height of walls.
And after that it is possible to start step-by-step work according to the following instruction:
- First of all it is necessary to lay vapor barrier layer from the attic. At the same time that party on which there is foil has to be turned down. Material with an overlap of about 10-15 cm keeps within and to provide tightness, it is necessary also to glue places of connections with adhesive tape.
- From above the chosen thermal insulation material keeps within. In this case mineral wool or haydite as the flat ceiling is not intended for heavy loads best of all approaches.
- From above the layer of waterproofing material as which roofing material or polyethylene film will approach is put. Laying shall is made with an overlap, and seams carefully glue with adhesive tape.
- The final layer has to consist of veneer sheets or boards which will become reliable protection for the previous layers.
It is easy way which is relevant if you are not going to spend for it too many means and time. If the area of bath is rather big or it is necessary to use the place under roof for storage, then this option will become not too suitable because of the fragility. In this case it is better to give preference to filler ceiling.
Warming of filler ceiling the hands: step-by-step instruction
The design of filler ceiling provides fastening to upper part of wall not of the flooring, but supporting beams for most of which often use wooden bar or several boards spliced among themselves. From above and from below to beams the ceiling which at the same time carries out also role of half of the attic fastens. And in the middle between top and base layer lay layer of thermal insulation material and also hydro insulators and steam insulators.
Process of mounting can differ a little depending on what heater has been chosen, however, generally the technology remains.
In case of use for this purpose of mineral wool, the procedure looks as follows:
- the first puts layer of waterproofing material which fastens to upper surface of beams by means of the furniture stapler. As well as in all other cases, overlaps have to be not less than 10 cm, and places of joints are in addition glued;
- over waterproofing lay boards or plywood, providing thus designs durability and reliability;
- mineral wool of suitable thickness keeps within intervals between beams proceeding from the following standards: 150-180 mm for regions with temperate climate, 200-250 mm for regions of which hard frosts are characteristic. As well as for waterproofing material, connection of two separate parts of material has to be made with an overlap;
- the vapor barrier film fastens to floor beams from bottom side. At the same time it is extremely recommended that its edges fastened to upper part of walls. As it is very gentle material, it is important to work with it accurately, without allowing damages and gaps;
- perpendicular to beams, over vapor barrier material wooden rails fasten;
- completion phase – fastening of lining by means of self-tapping screws or nails to these rails.
Such warmed ceiling is very strong and capable to maintain serious loadings so the attic-floor room can be used for arrangement of penthouse or as storage for different accessories.
Warming of ceiling of bath without attic the hands: nuances of work
The technology of warming of wooden or panel bath, in case of total absence of attic-floor room has some differences from those that have been considered earlier. In that case it is necessary to fix vapor barrier material, and then to attach heater. Already on it fastening of frame bar and final layer – ceiling boards is carried out.
Special attention should be paid to the place of joint of heater and pipe. First of all, it is necessary to provide respect for standards of fire safety. The space provided by rules has to make not less than 200 mm. It is natural that just it is impossible to leave hole and therefore the simple box consisting of feet of a rafter is mounted. Its main role – division of heater and pipe.
Helpful advice! Internal part of box can also be filled with thermal insulation material. However, it shall be fire-resistant and not give in to influence of high temperatures. For example, stone cotton wool for this purpose will approach.
One more important task which faces the owner who is engaged in warming of ceiling of bath without attic-floor room – complete elimination of risk of emergence of condensate. Therefore all vapor barrier and waterproofing materials have to be qualitative and fastens in strict accordance with rules and norms.
Two options of warming of floor in bath by the hands: the instruction to work
Of course, carrying out works on warming of brick bath or construction from tree, there will be not enough laying of thermal insulation material only on ceiling. Therefore it is worth taking care also of that indoors there was heat-insulated floor. Let’s consider how works depending on with what materials it is necessary to deal are carried out.
Option 1. Warming of wooden floor in bath
To make floor in bath warmer and to reduce heatlosses, use the same materials, as in case of mounting of ceiling. Quite often apply method of warming of floor in bath by haydite, mineral wool, ecocotton wool.
Helpful advice! One of the most effective ways of heat preservation indoors – installation of bath on screw piles. Warming of floor will be required in this case not so sharply due to availability of the additional airbag under the building.
The procedure of warming begins with dismantling of all elements which can interfere with work. Act plinth and floor board. After that all remained wooden elements are exposed to careful survey and check on availability of damages. In case of their detection, the spoiled elements are replaced with new. It is necessary to carry out processing by antiseptics which will protect from rodents, insects and fungi.
Using bars, small by the size, bottom edges log are increased to create reliable support for draft covering. Having used cheap sawn timber, the draft covering is mounted, leaving between logs and boards gaps about a centimeter. Boards of draft floor should not be laid too densely as at increase in air humidity wood has property to extend that can lead to deformation of covering in case of too dense laying.
Surely laying of vapor barrier layer, in particular, is required if soil levels are located in close proximity to surface. The vapor barrier has to cover all surface, including logs. If underground waters are located highly, then paper roof covering or roofing material, and best of all will be suitable for low level of underground water – vapor barrier membrane.
Fastening of material for vapor barrier needs to be carried out so that it took also bottom edges of wall, approximately on 15 cm. Material to logs by means of the construction stapler is the most convenient to fix, gluing each joint with adhesive tape.
The heat insulator keeps within between logs so that from above there were about 2 cm of the airbag. It will allow to provide natural ventilation.
Helpful advice! If thickness of heat insulator is so big that it is impossible to leave free space, then from above material can put furring with step about 40 cm.
To exclude risk of hit of moisture, one more moisture barrier from above is put. It is the most preferable to use membrane material to this purpose. If there is need of mounting of furring, then membrane have to be laid under it. In conclusion floorboards and plinth fasten. All sticking-out edges of materials are cut.
Option 2. Description of technology of warming of concrete floor expanded polystyrene
A little differently the procedure of warming of concrete floor in bath is carried out.
It is necessary to do it after completion of draft works:
- Over draft tie the layer of waterproofing material keeps within. Unlike wooden floor, in this case use of ordinary polyethylene of high strength is allowed. At the same time, calling on walls has to be not less than 5 cm. Material keeps within on surface, and excesses are cut off. If polyethylene initially was in roll, its part needs to stack with an overlap 10 cm, having stuck joints with adhesive tape.
- After that the thermal insulation material keeps within. Best of all for this purpose expanded polystyrene as it possesses all characteristics necessary for this purpose approaches. To attach sheets to surface, it is possible to use special glue and self-tapping screws, and in certain cases do furring.
- Atop the armoring lattice keeps within and one more tie which thickness has to be not less than 2 cm becomes.
- When the reinforcing tie completely dries, it is possible to be engaged in alignment of floor. For this purpose on sale there are special self-leveled mixes. Important only that its layer has made not less than 5-8 cm over heater level.
Helpful advice! In the course of filling, it is necessary to level mix by means of needle roller. It will allow to get rid of excess air bubbles and to make covering the most equal and smooth.
Warming of bath outside and inside: features of heat insulation of walls
The first what it is worth paying attention to, planning work on warming of walls of bath — from within or outside you want to place heat-insulation layer.
Both options are admissible, however, the first is used extremely seldom for a number of reasons:
- warming from within garages, baths and houses, modest on the area, is irrational use of that small space that is available. It is obvious that laying of all necessary layers will reduce the room that in certain cases is not ergonomic;
- the humidity in bath is so high that even at observance of all necessary conditions and mounting of vapor barrier and heat-insulation layers to guarantee that the heat insulator will not be affected by moisture sooner or later, it is almost impossible;
- warming of walls in bath from within the hands allows to keep warmly indoors, but is not capable to protect walls from freezing from outer end. Such temperature difference has often an adverse effect on condition of the building.
Let’s consider features of warming of walls depending on material which has been used for construction of the building.
Features of warming in wooden bath: steam room from felling
At first sight can seem that timbered buildings not especially need heat insulation as the wall looks quite hermetic, and wood not bad copes with heat preservation function. But actually, the problem is that the bar is strongly subject to shrinkage and eventually slots are formed. They also become the main sources of cold.
The most effective way to close up formed slots — to lay out heater between logs at construction stage. Then by means of the hammer and caulking iron all remained, even the smallest slots, are hammered and processed by sealant.
Interesting fact! To this day admirers of environmentally friendly materials continue to use for filling of slots in walls such plants as moss or cuckoo flax.
Warming of bath the hands from within: brick, block and frame constructions
Perhaps, one of the most labor-intensive processes – warming from within bath moreover and should be chosen from haydite concrete blocks, bricks or other materials to which it is not so simple to carry out fastening carefully material, in view of its weight and the size.
For example, if it is about warming of framework structure which is not capable to maintain serious loadings, it is simple not to do without careful carrying out predesigns. As the expensive, but ideal for this purpose option, it is possible to consider polyurethane foam sputtering. This way can be used as for warming of bath from foam concrete blocks from within, and for buildings from almost any materials.
In certain cases use plates of extruded polystyrene foam. For internal warming it is not too suitable option as takes away essential quantity of space, and here for external covering of the best decision not to find.
Helpful advice! Warming by method of sputtering of polyurethane foam shall be made by professionals and with observance of all production requirements and norms. Also, availability of the high-quality specialized equipment surely is required.
There is set of various ways to warm floor, ceiling and walls of bath, using for this purpose different materials and technologies. It is possible to learn about one of such ways in more detail, having got acquainted with detailed video the instruction for warming of brick wall from within. Besides, this technology can be used not only for bath. According to such instruction it is also possible to carry out warming of garage the hands from within.