Table of Contents
The majority of country houses are used by us, mostly, temporarily: during issue, on holidays or days off. All rest of the time they are left practically without supervision. And, certainly, there will always be someone, not indifferent to someone else’s property, the person interested to violate the law and to use long absence of owners. However not everything is so hopeless, and all find the solution of question. Someone agrees with the neighbors who are constantly living out of town, someone hangs strong sun blind. It is and still more reliable to use the GSM alarm system though not too expensive. Devices will define the moment of penetration of uninvited guests, will call the police and will photograph thieves, will notify you on the events and will include siren.
Under protection of the GSM alarm system both country houses, and offices, apartments, garages, outlets, warehouses, other objects can be left. Some types of alarm systems can work several months in the autonomous mode, it is convenient when object of protection is deenergized for the period of absence of owners or when it is indoors rather difficult to place the main module and wiring.
And still it is necessary to treat question of security of the house as it is possible more seriously. Theoretically the issue of creation of intrusion alarm system has to be resolved on projecting phase of other utilities. But in fact such approach practically does not meet. There are no such normative documents and acts which would discuss obligatory equipment of residential buildings the security fire warning. And for industrial facilities such need is caused. Therefore the lack of such systems cannot entail responsibility, they are established only at the initiative of the investor or the customer. And most often installation of security systems is made much later the ends of construction. As a result because of economic or esthetic reasons there is derogation from requirements of standards. And still even in such cases at all stages of installation it is desirable to adhere to the norms established for electronic security systems.
Field cable installation
As a rule, installation works are conducted in three stages. First of all, the cable lines conducting to the place of future installation of devices which make system are laid: central equipment, actuation mechanisms, sensors, keyboard of management. Installation and connection of this equipment becomes the second stage after finishing comes to the end. And at the third stage works on adjustment of system follow.
The system of cable communications becomes the base of future signaling system.
It is necessary to provide possibility of building of system in the future. For this purpose it is necessary to define correctly topology of cable network and to set it with reserve of length 10-20%. At the same time it will increase its durability and reliability. So, for example, when the cable communications intended for defense of perimeter are laid additional pairs of signal cables (4-10 couples) and, at least, 2 reserve power couples are put. It costs not so much. In industrial or office buildings, especially if laying of internal lines of connections is made in corridor design, all sensors of the alarm system integrate in loops from set (up to 20) pieces. It saves hardware resources of control part and cable. But in owner-occupied residential building with compact placement of rooms this way is inexpedient. More the scheme “stars” in which the separate wire departs for connection to each sensor will approach. At such scheme there is some increase in length of the spent cable which is quite compensated by increase in reliability of system and also simplification of diagnostics of malfunctions and service.
In one pipe or one box wires with different tension should not be laid (less and more than 60 V).
Laying of the supply lines intended for perimeter sensors unlike less long lines located indoors the section of their wires is selected taking into account length of joint links and the consumed currents. It is desirable that stocks on section have been provided, it is useful at connection of additional equipment. Criteria for selection of cable type of alarm systems taking into account electrical safety are discussed in regulations for electrical installation.
The general requirement obligatory for lines of cables of the alarm system — integrity of connecting wires. If the branching or merging of cables is organized, in this place the switching box allowing to reach quietly for these places in case of need of audit is established. Extents of necessary protection of cables and switching products are defined depending on what will be specific conditions of operation. Regardless of way and type of laying of cable wiring (internal, external, underground, open, hidden, air, etc.), the general requirements are imposed to it. The distance between force lines and pilot wires if they are laid in parallel, should not be less half a meter or, in extreme cases – 25 centimeters. It will provide sufficient noise immunity.
Perhaps, the most expensive and most is difficult for mounting part of security system – the cable lines intended for perimeter systems. Usually they are laid in the underground way, for esthetic reasons open laying can be considered unacceptable – it can spoil considerably external twisted houses. The cable laid underground resides in difficult weather conditions and because of seasonal deformations of soil periodically is exposed to mechanical influences. Damages can be put also during all-construction or landscape jobs.
Most often it is necessary to reach compromise sufficient for acceptable degrees of protection and the cost of the cable sewerage. It can be reached if to use for laying of cable passages sewer PVC the pipe laid in 30-5 centimetric trenches, dug on all perimeter of the base of barrier. In places of joints of PVC of pipes rubber cups are established – it will allow to avoid flooding of cables underground waters and their mechanical damage. Small depth minimizes earthwork operations during possible repair and saves means during laying. And the location of the route at a short distance guarantees its safety against the base of barrier during garden works.
Perimeter systems are usually mounted in complex with other systems — responsible for illumination of perimeter and security television therefore laying of communications of each of these systems happens in parallel. The route represents the segments equal in length of 50-100 meters with switching intermediate boxes. Usually boxes are installed in places of fastening of devices security systems: sensors of intruder alarm, illuminating equipment, TV cameras, etc. It facilitates repair of cable lines and their diagnostics.
When laying underground lines the reserve of cables also has to be provided. The intruder alarm of perimeter is most often mounted together with other systems, for example, of lighting or security television if on the site or in the territory of holiday village there is constant post of protection. If is located directly on the site, then usually is near entrance gate. To reduce losses and to optimum use cable, it is reasonable to lay it in the form of two counter half rings. But in advance the reserve on any future need cannot be provided, on the last segment it is not obligatory to close ring – it will allow to save a little.
Laying along perimeter of cable communications is carried out taking into account that, construction barrier is how ready. If the cable is laid under goal mouth or gates, it is desirable to equip timely them in steel pipes which will allow to carry out cable works regardless of stage of construction without breaking road covering and will provide additional protection against mechanical damages.
Big personal plots usually consist of several separate buildings. As between them it is necessary to stretch cable lines too, it is reasonable to carry out these works together with laying of other utilities. At ideal option reserve mortgage pipes with wire broaches through which in effect it will be possible to stretch additional cables are laid. The project of the house sometimes provides the device for communications of special steel concrete tray. Rather small increase in comparison with initial investment of expenses as much as possible will facilitate repair or reconstruction of the alarm system.
During operation of system rather often there are situations demanding installation of the additional periphericals which are not provided by the initial version or that which have not been established for financial reasons at once. Input to the room of the additional route of cables is connected with big difficulties and destruction ready finishing. It can be avoided if in advance the additional reserve sleeve is provided in socle part of the building. In sleeve, since both of its ends, switching boxes are established.
Installation of main line and sensors
In cases when the system provides installation of internal sensors, the internal lines conducting to them also, as well as cable passages, it is better to lay along with mounting of electrical wiring or other wire lines at mounting stage. Special attention, unlike the systems installed in process or office buildings in premises it is necessary to give to the choice of places in which sensors will be installed. It is necessary to consider elements which will make future interior: furniture, illuminating equipment, curtains and elements of finishing. If such “trifles”, then wire to which it is necessary to connect the sensor are not considered, quite it can appear on site, occupied by the speaker element of ceiling ornament or the hanging shelf. If future arrangement of furniture is still unknown and there is no opportunity to find out what points will be free, places for sensors should be picked up so that the mistake has not come to light later. For example, their installation can be planned over apertures of doors. It is possible to expect also mounting ceiling the sensors having circular zone of detection.
Sensors and in close proximity to heating appliances, fireplaces, furnaces, other sources of heat, near air vents, on partitions with small thickness or others, subject to vibration, elements should not be installed. It is impossible to put sensors and on panes. In the best option of the place at which sensors will be to pick up together with the designer developing room interior, then you will be able to consider not only technical characteristics of devices, but also to enter them in exterior of rooms.
The place exaction for installation of main line (the receiving and control device) becomes important point in design of system also. As start of actuation mechanisms becomes its main task after the alarm signal arrives, it is very important that the device was to the place which it would be difficult to malefactor to reach. If there is protection post, this issue is resolved by itself and the main line is located in the same place. If the device has to be installed in the house, then it is necessary to arrange it in any utility or technical room: storeroom, electropanel board, boiler. Where the main line would not be mounted, its installation is carried out taking into account the stated requirements – wall on which the receiving and control device is fixed, made of fireproof material. If it is impossible, under the device laying from such material is arranged. If the ceiling over main line is made of the materials subject to burning, then the distance between the device and ceiling should not be less than 1 meter.
Wiring of the alarm system has to be laid is reserved for ensuring sufficient protection against damage both intentional, and accidental.
How to spare finishing
How communications of system of protection to external sensors which are installed on house wall will be laid, depends on way of finishing and design of these walls. So, the plastered walls are more convenient for arrangement of wires on outer side of the house. And in the houses having wooden overlappings, it is better to lay connecting cables in the space formed by beams of overlappings – it as much as possible will save wiring from damage. One more way – the laying of wires which is carried out under floor tie. But in that case laying is carried out in steel or PVC pipes that will provide protection of wire against mechanical damages.
It is important to plan thus work that the stage of construction readiness, necessary for laying of the alarm system, has not been passed. In residential buildings which are already operated to draw cable lines without to breaking external or interior finish, it is often almost impossible. In that case infrared motion sensors which are installed on external walls become the best option for the organization of boundary of protection of external perimeter of the building. Laying of connecting wires in brick houses which walls have no finishing can be carried out in external seams of brickwork. Use the same way when laying pilot wire in seams of facing stone or facing tile of any type. At cable laying in special PVC channels which are painted later will break the principle of reserve therefore it is not used.
If initially the security fire warning has not been provided in the project of the house, the cable can be laid in the mixed option. So, for example, the main wiring of loops is carried out in the special “pockets” located under roof overhangs, at the same time it is necessary to investigate the lower filing partially. And on external walls the cable should be released for mounting of sensors.
It is the most difficult to perform such works in houses which finishing is fully completed. One of the ways helping to avoid finishing destruction is use of the radio sensors working at self-contained supply. However, it is necessary to consider that such sensors have some shortcomings: periodically it is necessary to replace batteries, such sensors are not used at negative temperatures and, eventually, they are just expensive. Becomes optimal solution in combination of limited use of radio channels and wiring segments of system.
To install sensors, the keyboard and other devices and also to hold their commissioning follows at the same time upon termination of finishing. Large objects which have included several subsystems the alarm system is put into operation by the functional or territorial principle.