Table of Contents
Times when the sewerage equipped in country house looked as something unusual, have passed long ago. Now availability of effectively operating sewerage in the country became not just comfort indicator, and one of engineering systems which need is meant without any doubts. And still, if in the city the organization of the sewerage demands only connection to already developed existing infrastructure, then in the country the situation is much more difficult. It is required or be connected to the general system of the settlement, or to organize the independent sewerage. In the first case carrying out the outside sewerage which main objective – withdrawal of waste from the house and their giving to through line is necessary. Usually at home in the settlements having such line are given already connected or are under construction with performance of this condition. In the second case the local sewerage designed under the specific house and which is carrying out task of utilization and neutralization of drains independently without the centralized branch is created.
First of all, it is necessary to find out, will be suitable the independent sewerage, what of options, best of all for your situation. Therefore we will consider all options which exist at the moment.
Cheap, simply, angrily – cesspool
The cesspool device, from the technology point of view, the simplest decision. Allows to make withdrawal of waste and the contaminated waters with the minimum expenses. In fact it is the strengthened wells executed from enough resistant materials, such as steel concrete rings. The principle of the device is simplest: on the laid pipes the contaminated water comes to hole in which the contaminating impurity gather. Water passes through strengthening of well in layer of earth then it is evenly distributed on the site. Speed of filling of hole depends on its volume and intensity of use of water of residents of the house, process can last long enough. When the hole is enough filled with dumpings, the cesspool cab devastating capacity and releasing it for further work is called. Usually the volume of hole is planned according to calculations of indicators of 0.5-1.5 cubic meters of water for 1 person. Demands very economical relation to water flow.
Main shortcomings of similar technology:
- the hole exudes unpleasant smell;
- there is biochemical pollution of the site;
- very high probability of emergence of emergencies: for example, after heavy or long rains fecal masses quite can come up outside, spread on the site and appear at house threshold;
- on one site near cesspool it is almost impossible to use the well or well for potable water – it is equivalent to as though you drank directly from the sewerage;
- productivity is very low, especially on sites with dominance of dense soil, at peak loading productivity appears under the threat;
- the entrance is necessary for special equipment cars;
- dependence on reaction of the services responsible for emptying of cesspools.
As a result the cesspool cannot be considered as the desirable design which is responsible for intake of run-off waters.
Dry closet, chemical toilet
Operates on the principle of decomposition of waste with chemical medicines. Can have only narrow application therefore completely does not answer requirements imposed to the sewerage. At utilization of drains they get to sandy water-bearing layer. Constantly demands makeup of expensive chemical reagents. The accumulative container needs to be released regularly. It can be used in the winter only in the conditions of the warm room as freezing is not allowed. From merits it is possible to note lack of smells.
You should not consider as constant toilet for giving or country house as does not solve problem of drain of the used waters. But can quite apply as temporary option, for example, for term while the local sewerage prepares. Thanks to the small sizes, can be established not only in the building, but also in change houses, trailers, trailers, etc.
The punching toilet
As well as the previous option, can be used during construction of the main sewerage, and we will also apply to small lodges with small water flow and lack of water supply.
Difference from chemical toilet that cleaning of waste happens not entirely in holding tank, and, generally in compost pit. At first in the capacity of dry closet processing is made by anaerobic bacteria, then in hole the peat charge is poured and there is biological processing.
However at such cleaning more than 30% of drains get to soil and practically the same result, as with cesspool turns out. On the site with such compost pit use of well is also not recommended.
Such option can be recommended only in cases when means do not allow to create more comfortable conditions.
The alternative decision – holding tank
One more, along with cesspool, the simplest way of the organization of the sewerage in the country. It is most often used by summer residents, is more rare in cottages or household complexes. Are convenient for application in temporary construction settlements.
Technology it is the sealed container accepting the waste waters departing from the house. The main difference from the simplest cesspool – control of water together with waste. On the one hand, the holding tank allows to protect the site from biochemical pollution and increases its environmental safety. But, with another as water has no opportunity to go to soil, it is necessary to save it and very often to call the cab of community services for emptying.
But there are also other positive sides of such option. On sale there is wide choice, capacity can contain 2-50 thousand liters, at the same time any of them can be placed is reserved – underground.
Tanks are made of modern materials (for example, of fibreglass), in comparison with metal at them the raised operating ability. Small weight allows not to devastate capacity, and to dismantle it and to replace with new – this process is reduced the price thanks to simplicity of transportation.
The inside face, unlike concrete and metal, is not subject to adjournment of salts and other deposits. Pauly material does not decay, is not treated to action of electric discharges and differs in resistance to dynamic and static loads. Maintains any frosts and it is protected from temperature drops, is steady against actions of the chemical agents arriving via the sewerage. Serves within not less than 50 years – it is much higher than any other tanks.
In principle, the holding tank has to be considered as the protected and clean cesspool working in short cycles between cleanings of contents.
Mechanical septic tank – the system of natural cleaning
The basic principle of septic tanks (the systems of natural cleaning) consists that they filter waste waters. At the exit from septic tank rather clear water turns out. However, not so clean that it suited for free dumping, but allowing not to worry about pollution of the site. Usually mounting of system of natural cleaning is admissible only in sandy or sandy soil, that is in where underground waters lie rather deeply.
At septic tanks the section device, water passes certain level of cleaning in each of the following sections. The waste waters getting to the first block of settler are divided into three components: light impurity emerge up, and heavy rainfall settles on bottom. On average layer there is rather clear water which undergoes the subsequent cleaning in the second section of septic tank. The quantity of sections can vary from 2 to 4, according to this indicator and volume of sections the maximum load and extent of water treatment is defined.
After the water purified in septic tank comes to light, it gets to layer of earth which is specially organized for this purpose. There is additional natural drainage. Normally it is sand-gravel layer.
The difference of all septic tanks is that they have rather simple device and can be mounted is hidden. The site after such cleaning practically does not become soiled, and waste does not allocate smell. But septic tanks and number of shortcomings possess. First, waste is not brought out of system, and it demands the regular address to specialists. And, secondly, the passability of system determines the maximum volume of use of water, after overload of septic tank there can be smell and results of work are worsened.
Septic tanks demand annual survey. Usually cleaning is made once for several years. Along with cleaning soil in places in which there is water inflow to the soil is partially replaced. If the septic tank stops work for long time, then it is usually followed by corrective maintenance. Calculation of basic volume of septic tank comes from three multiple daily inflows averaging 200 liters on each of the living people.
Septic tanks – the cheap and available mechanical devices suitable for people with small, but continuous volume of use of the sewerage and low requirements to water treatment. The important factor – septic tank allows to clean rather large volumes of water, but at the same time is completely non-volatile. Rather quite good offer on ratio of the price and quality.
Use of microorganisms — the system of biological cleaning
In such systems the traditional mechanical septic tank is complemented with the biofilter. It allows to receive water which is even authorized for dumping in stocked reservoirs at the exit. Usually the system of biological cleaning of drains represents the modular construction executed in the uniform general body.
The principle by which biological systems work it is rather interesting: except mechanical water treatment the septic tank, makes anaerobic stabilization, access of oxygen to the purified water is excluded and by that the condition necessary for fermentation is created. Decomposition of fatty components results (hydrolysis). As well as in septic tanks, the film and layer of rainfall which demand afterwards removal by the cesspool machine is formed.
After cleaning in mechanical part, water overflows in aero tank and mixes up with active silt. In order that rainfall quickly was oxidized and has begun to decay, the forced purge is carried out by oxygen. The last traces of pollution are cleaned by means of biofilters. The system can use biofermental additives as the catalyst of processes, different chemicals (for example, chlorine for chlorination) and ultra-violet radiators through which there passes water before dumping into reservoirs or the systems of watering.
The systems of biological cleaning have set of advantages before other methods:
- they can be mounted near buildings;
- absolute lack of unpleasant smell;
- very small level of deposits of not decomposed drains;
- the highest level of cleaning — up to 98%;
- use of modern materials and stability of work of system guarantee long life cycle;
- minimum dependence on work of community services;
- possibility of mounting in any place of the site.
The systems of biological cleaning are on a centralized basis used in the organization of the sewerage cottage settlements or in country cottages. At the moment such type of waste water treatment in country houses is considered the most efficient and effective. At rather expensive price, the system of biological cleaning not only brings the best result, but also pays off thanks to the smaller number of technical works and long life cycle.
However work of systems of biological cleaning requires connection to power supply networks, that is in the unelectrified house it is impossible to establish it.
There are also other difficulties during the work with such systems depending on specific design. They need to be found out from the supplier or the seller.
How to choose the system of the sewerage for cottage or country house
To make right choice, it is necessary to define answers to some questions:
- Whether you are ready to pollution of the site waste waters?
- As far as esthetics of system, lack of unpleasant smells and comfort are important for you?
- What term of operation of sewerage system is planned?
- How service of the sewerage how services in call of the cesspool machine and maintenance inspection of system will expensively manage how not call the community or commercial services which are carrying out sewage disposal quickly react will be organized?
- What planned volume of daily drain?
- It is how probable that in the nearest future there will be house possible connection to the centralized drain if infrastructure of the area develops?
- Whether the local system will experience peak strain, for example, after arrival of guests, carrying out holidays, etc.?
- Whether there will be long breaks in operation of system of the sewerage?
- As far as you are ready to spend economically water in order that the sewerage functioned steadily?
- Whether expansion of water supply systems or heating is planned in the future?
- Whether construction on the site of the engineering objects increasing load of the sewerage (baths, saunas, pools, etc.) is planned in the future?
- What is more important for you when determining expenses: low single cost of system or low cost of operation?
- What sum you are ready to enclose in the organization of the sewerage of giving or cottage?
The accurate wording of answers will help to choose way which optimum will be suitable for the organization of sewerage system of your house.
But, what of options you would not choose (except for the dry closets which are not demanding separate branches), it is necessary to remember the correct mounting as tanks or systems, and observance necessary requirements when mounting all system.
Emergence of unpleasant smells, soil pollution and other troubles often depend not on that, you use the local or centralized sewerage, and from whether its mounting is correctly executed. So, not observance of necessary biases of pipes or application of pipes of the wrong diameter, will lead to their fast contamination. Besides it is very important for comfortable stay that the pipeline did not allocate hazardous substances, especially when passing hot drains and provided low noise level.
These issues are resolved not only in places of conclusion of pipes and accessions them to the capacity or the module of system, but also in the course of construction of the house. Special attention has to be paid to combination of architectural concepts of walls and ceilings, miscalculation of thickness of tie of floors in places of pipeline laying of the sewerage, to the put bias and turning angles of pipes. Also the certain advantage of arrangement of release from the house of the pipes intended for insert is necessary.
Completely it is possible to describe pipe installation of the sewerage of country house in separate article, and here we will give only the main, rather simple, governed:
- correct sequence of connection dignity of those devices;
- observance on all sites of sufficient bias of sewage pipes (the big bias does not mean “sufficient”);
- selection of diameters of the pipes corresponding to purpose;
- installation of clearings, audits and other elements of service;
- lack of the sharp excesses leading to accumulation of pollution;
- protection of outside sites of the highway from freezing;
- appropriate removal of gases.