Table of Contents
Correctly equipped ceiling overlapping is not only guarantee of safe operation of the house, but also guarantee of comfortable stay in it. Ceiling overlapping of one-storey building is the boundary separating internally space from attic-floor room. From correctly executed warmly and sound insulation of overlapping heatlosses and penetration of external noise in the house depend. The following requirements are imposed to ceiling overlappings:
- Bearing capacity of overlapping has to correspond to operational loadings which consider its total weight, including basic elements of design and insulating materials.
- The upper limit of loadings should not affect rigidity of overlapping, the rigidity has to exclude deflection and deformation of overlapping completely.
- Heat and sound insulation have to be executed taking into account indicators of the lowest temperatures and noise loadings from the street and from roof. Arrangement of sound insulation of the attic at the same time also has to be executed.
- Overlapping has to be fire-resistant, and in case of laying of flue it is necessary to consider number of additional requirements.
Laying of wood beams
Joist ceiling – the most popular type of overlappings at the moment this results from the fact that material relatively not the road and works are not too labor-consuming. The tree in itself has excellent heatengineering and acoustic properties therefore the possibility of conductivity by it noise and cold is completely excluded. At the device of joist ceiling special machinery and equipment is not required. Two adult strong men at experience of construction can execute overlapping from wood beams.
The choice of beams is key moment at arrangement of ceiling overlapping therefore it is necessary to approach it with extreme responsibility. From that, how correctly you will choose materials, the long duration of operation of future house depends. Load of ceiling overlapping is accepted the design equal to weight which depending on filler can make from 250 to 300 kg on square meter + temporary load of equal 100 kg on square meter of the area. Total size 350 or 400 of kg/sq.m turns out. As a rule, together with filler calculate loading in 350 kg/sq.m of the area. With bay length of 4.5 meters the section of beam has to be not less than 10 x 22 cm. As floor beams beams as humidity no more than 20% can be chosen. It means that prepared from fresh coniferous tree, the beam had to lie in the dry place not less than 1 year. Wood beams of 3-year prescription of production are recognized as ideal option, they should not be knotty, cross-fibered and with confused cross grain. Beams from coniferous breeds of trees have to be surely antiseptic and have fire-prevention impregnation. Deciduous breeds of trees do not apply to production of beams of overlappings.
Wood beams can be applied with the maximum bay length of 6 meters, the optimal variant has accepted length 4.5 meters. Modern wooden houses, as a rule, have length of one of the parties of 9 meters. In the middle of such house one more load bearing wall is put up, overlapping at the same time is carried out continuous, with support of beams on two adjoining load bearing walls. The beam everyone and in relation to others has to be located in strictly horizontal plane, all beams have to be located at one level. For this purpose they are leveled by laying method under the ends by the remains of the tarred boards, it is impossible to trim beam.
Beams usually keep within on the short party of felling with step of 50 – 100 cm, 60 cm are considered optimum distance. Beams, whenever possible have in parallel each other, the long party of section of beam has to be located vertically. The ends of beams opirat in the slots provided in advance, wrap them in two layers of roofing felt or roofing material (except end faces) or burn. It is possible to neutralize sound vibrations which can be transferred afterwards to ceiling by method of laying of the ends of beams on the sound-proof laying made of the felt impregnated with anti-septic tank or thick rubber. The ends of beams have to be brought to slots on depth of 15 cm. Every second beam fix to load bearing wall iron cramps, the rigidity of design not only the overlapping, but also the building in general thereby is provided. For arrangement of aperture for flue establish additional crossbar which serves as support for beams.
Arrangement of aperture for chimney pipe needs to pay special attention, thereby having provided fire safety of the dwelling. Wooden elements have to be located from chimney pipe at distance of 35 cm. Smoke pipes in places of passing through overlappings have cutting, i.e. its walls are in these parts thicker on 1 brick. If conditions do not allow to leave gap in 35 cm, then is admissible it to reduce to 30 cm, but at the same time it is necessary to isolate in addition pipe from asbestos beam the cardboard 3 mm thick or felt impregnated with clay mortar.
The wood crossbar structure represents itself, leaning on cross fixed beam, beams of overlappings by means of cuttings or metal collars. On 1 beam only 1 crossbar can be located, and on 1 crossbar only 1 beam can be fixed.
When calculating step of beams it is necessary to consider arrangement of flue at once and according to it to lay beams and to arrange crossbar.
The board device – ceiling
In one-storey building where the attic is going to be used directly, do not provide the device of vibration-isolating layer and separately setup. Carry out filing at once from rabbeted boards which forms at the same time basis for isolation and basis for ceiling. Boards for ceiling have to be the identical size and one grade, at their mounting it is necessary to stack the first board groove to wall. Ceiling eaves boards from coniferous breeds of trees have to have thickness of 25 mm, they are hemmed by nails of 70 mm with hats to beams. Each board needs to be beaten to each beam the hammer by means of two nails, at the same time the direction is chosen obliquely, about 450. The distance from board edge to nail head is chosen by about 1 cm.
Heat and sound insulation
Before stacking filler between beams, without fail carry out vapor barrier of overlapping. As material it is possible to apply polymeric membranes, the foiled heater or vapor barrier film. The vapor barrier is laid between beams at all length and width of flight, at the same time material has to cover beam on all its height. Fix material by means of the construction stapler or by means of thin wooden rails which fix on top of vertical edge of beam.
As insulating materials haydite, mineral wool, ecocotton wool, glass wool or polyfoam is applied. Each of these materials suits for warming and sound insulation. The choice can be caused by personal preference: some materials are cheapest, some are most convenient when laying. All these materials in this or that or other degree have moisture permeability and can lose the properties because of remoistening. Therefore from above any of materials needs to be isolated also vapor barrier material.
On top of preparation stack board from draft boards on which stack one more layer from dense tree of the containing plates.
Heater for aperture between pipe and wood deck is carried out as follows: on 1 part of wooden sawdust take 4 parts of clay, 1/3 parts of cement and knead all this 2 or slightly the water most parts. By means of form do elements of heater of bars and dry it under canopy to humidity of 20%. Then these preparations stack around flue and are fixed by means of solution of identical structure.
From within the room the ceiling can be made of gypsum cardboard or plates of fibreboard, also it can be plastered. The layer of plaster layer is applied on shingle from thin rails which jam on all surface of ceiling. Today the market offers set of options of ceiling coverings therefore plaster is already not so relevant as before.