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If you have decided to build the house for full-time residence in the country, then the most inexpensive and option convenient in every sense – wooden cottage. For construction of felling use both glued bar, and the rounded log, and the usual, simple pro-thinned-out bar in mounting which features we will consider in more detail. Whether it is possible to build the house from bar by own efforts and what specifically for this purpose needs to be known?
The pro-thinned-out bar: material properties
Wood, but not any, and mainly from coniferous breeds forms basis for production of the pro-thinned-out bar: cedar pine, larch, fir-tree, pine ordinary. The form of bar is different. The inside, as a rule, direct and equal, and external can have options – to be slightly curved or also direct. The bar connects by the principle of the designer, and the basic functional elements are the thorn and groove thanks to which connection of two parts becomes reliable and stable.
The pro-thinned-out bar as practically all wooden products, has the following advantages:
- Environmental friendliness. For production use only the processed wood, without use of glue structure.
- Low cost. It is turning point for people of middle-income who want to save on construction of country house.
- Excellent heat-insulating properties. Wood was long since applied to construction of houses for this reason, and the pro-thinned-out bar, as well as any wooden materials, is capable to keep well warmly indoors.
- Fast mounting. Ease of assembly for which the special system “thorn-groove” is provided is pleasant to owners who want to build the house rather quickly, for example, within one season.
- Possibility of protection. The bar has the honeycomb which is easily giving in to rotting and mold growth, nevertheless, simple processing of surface of preparations does material strong, wearproof, capable to serve decades.
Having saved on construction of the house from the pro-thinned-out bar, you should not forget about its weaknesses. As well as any wood, bar does not love excessive humidity, therefore, it is necessary to pay more attention to waterproofing and the correct device of roof. It is necessary to watch closely possible clinking and to mean that even the small superficial crack is capable to turn into through. Additional heat insulation will protect wood from low temperature impact in frosts.
Preparatory stage: design and material selection
Drawing up the project is not excess work, but guarantee of the correct and consecutive construction. Having made measurements and calculations, it is much easier to find out how many financial expenses are expected in the course of construction and to prevent emergence of unplanned purchases. The sketch of the building can serve as starting point. More exact calculations will be made by the construction organization, and the most optimal variant – to provide own project for editing by specialists.
Best season for the construction jobs connected with wood the winter is. But it is necessary to exclude frosty days with very low temperature as wood becomes excessively brittle that will surely affect quality of the building. That the bar gave uniform, quiet shrinkage, it has to be rather dry. Besides, it is necessary to pay attention to lack of defects: small cracks, knots, ledges will become further cause of destruction of wood and violation of heat-insulating properties of the building.
Having chosen high-quality preparations, they should be cut off to the necessary size and to process protective antiseptic structure. A little more expensively, but it is possible to receive material quicker, having ordered it at the woodworking enterprise in advance. In the same place will make the necessary profile with grooves that the felling could be collected even quicker.
Stage I – construction of the base
To choose the correct type of the base not less important, than to pick up quality material. For the bar-shaped house usually choose the pile, column or small buried base as the tape type is suitable for construction of brick houses, concrete, slag stones more.
Let’s consider the sequence of construction of small buried base
- Marking. For best accuracy it is necessary to perform measurements and to designate construction corners (internal and external), having hammered stakes into the earth. Having connected marks construction cord, we receive perimeter of future building.
- Dredging. The hole should not be big, admissible maximum of depth – 0.6 m. Too small hole is also no good as it threatens with instability of future design. Optimum depth – 0.4-0.6 m. Taking out soil, it is necessary to adhere marking, possible discrepancy – 0.2 m.
- The pillow device from crushed stone. Originally the bottom of trench is filled up with sand which needs to be stamped, then – crushed stone. Thickness of each layer is 0.1 m.
- Preparation of form. It can be made independently of wooden boards or boards, and it is possible to order from lighter plastic or strong steel sheets.
- Strengthening by armature. The grid will make the base of the rods connected cross-wise strong and integral. Diameter of rods of armature – about 1 cm. For bigger reliability lay at least 2 belts of grid.
- Filling by concrete solution. Before it moisten timbering with water that then it was easier to dismantle it. As soon as concrete stiffens, the timbering should be removed.
- Warming and waterproofing. For warming use extruded polystyrene foam 5-8 cm thick. Wall of the base cover with pitch. The slots which have remained from the dismantled timbering fill up with crushed stone for the purpose of waterproofing. The top is covered with roofing material and do backfilling by the soil which is taken out initially.
Stage II – installation of the basis
As the beginning of construction serves the device of the first row which is stacked on the base prepared, covered with waterproofing. Apply bar of 150 mm x 150 mm whereas for internal partitions there is enough section of 100 mm x 50 mm to wall construction of the house. Having laid the first row, material is processed protective antiseptic solution from all directions.
The following step – mounting log, previously sustained indoors. They form the basis for floor. Logs can be mounted in walls or to stack on the base. Two largest preparations are put opposite to each other at opposite walls. Between them, approximately through 1.5 m, pull cord parallel to which it is necessary to stack other elements. Intervals between products need to be laid heater as which traditional materials – polyfoam, sawdust, mineral wool, expanded polystyrene or isobosoms act.
The distance between logs depends on their thickness – the boards are thicker, the it is more intervals. Usually intervals between boards are approximately twice more than their thickness. Mounting log is made by means of dowels or anchors.
Boards fix on logs, having receded 10-15 mm from wall. To keep structure of wood and to avoid splits, for self-tapping screws do openings, using drill with thin drill. Slots which remain along floor perimeter are closed further by plinth. The first layer of floor — “draft”, it forms the basis for top, finishing layer. The basis needs to be covered on both sides with thermal insulation material, and then from above to lay wood deck. As waterproofing usually apply dense polyethylene film. Any boards, for example, rabbeted 28-36 mm thick are suitable for top layer.
Stage III – construction of walls
Ranks from bar spread in turn, according to the same scheme. For fastening of ranks use special probes – dowels. They strongly fix elements, without allowing them to be displaced aside. Dowels can be wooden (better from the same breed of tree) or metal, more expensive. The probes inserted into openings with a diameter of 3-4 cm connect 2-3 rows at once. Interval of arrangement of dowels – 1.5 m.
Stacking bar, it is necessary to lay heater between two products. Special attention is paid to corners, using “warm corner” technology. Bars connect thorn groove on system, sometimes alternating them. Such method not only strengthens the building, but also protects it from drafts. After construction of external walls arrange partitions, having involved preparations of smaller section. Fellings more than 6 m x 6 m have to have the additional supporting partition on the center of the room. It is possible to save on construction of internal walls if instead of bar to use framework — battened or plywood from two parties bars of small section.
At construction of walls it is necessary to remember their protection against ignition. Each wooden element should be processed carefully fire-retarding agent which is applied with either wide paint brush, or spray.
For the period of wall construction in places where there will be window openings, arrange technology openings for airing. Windows establish only after there is shrinkage of the house. The profile of windows does not matter – both metalplastic, and the processed wood are equally good.
Stage IV – the roof device
As covering for roof use material, different at cost and technical characteristics. It can be inexpensive roofing material or professional flooring, or metal tile, more attractive, but high at cost. If in the house the penthouse is planned, the device of roof should be begun with it.
Begin construction of roof with mounting of rafters, ceiling beams and furring. Ceiling beams stack on the put-up walls, and their edges have to support on half-meter wall limits. Suitable material – bar of 150 mm x 100 mm. Logs put on edge, interval between elements – 0.8 m.
Then take boards of 150 mm x 50 mm and build rafter design which will create roof basis. For fixing of parts drag struts, racks and crossbars are provided. The framework from rafters has to be strong therefore distances between them reduce to minimum – 1 cm. Further spread fronts, using thin bar or siding.
Having constructed framework, start mounting of furring. At the same time lay waterproofing course for protection against formation of condensate. This stage can be passed if the attic remains “cold” and blown, and as roofing covering use slate.
Choosing material for finishing covering, it is necessary to consider several moments:
- climatic features of the area;
- technical characteristics of material (for example, weight is important);
- need for additional waterproofing and heat insulation;
- possibility of independent mounting.
If laying of roofing covering does not cause difficulties, it is possible to execute it independently, but anyway it is necessary to be guided by the enclosed instruction.
Stage V – waterproofing and warming
The more qualitatively warming of the building is executed, the less means will leave on payment of heating what fuel would not be used for heating of rooms.
Walls from the pro-thinned-out bar demand both outside, and interior finish. Outside protects wood from moisture which appears during atmospheric precipitation. As protective barrier use siding, but is more often ordinary wooden lining – easy and strong. Under it stack heater – glass wool with the foiled vapor barrier, tow, mineral wool.
Expanded polystyrene is not applied for one reason – it does not pass moisture, as a result – emergence of processes of rotting and development of the centers of mold. Roofing material, paper roof covering and polyethylene film belong to the same materials. Specialists recommend to be spent and get a little vapor-permeable membrane – light and reliable modern material.
Even more heat can be kept, having isolated the house from the inside. Equally well gypsum cardboard, hardboard, lining approach. Usually owners choose the most usual for them material, but it is necessary to consider features of each of them and not to forget that main goal – to warm the room. For decorative registration use absolutely other materials. If the country house is considered as seasonal housing, then such careful heat insulation is not necessary.
So, if you have decided to use the pro-thinned-out bar for construction, then it is necessary to get acquainted with its characteristics, ways of fixture and methods of laying. At respect for all technology norms and instructions it is possible to build independently the big, beautiful, warm house for full-time residence.