Table of Contents
Creation of the pool can seem not too complex business, at first sight. To dig ditch, to concrete its bottom and walls, to cover them with ceramic tile – and everything, it is possible to pour water and in the pleasure to bathe. In fact, everything is absolutely not so simple.
Modern pools are difficult hydraulic engineering constructions which can be equipped with the last technical novelties. In the course of installation it is necessary to solve set of problems of the pool bowl device, pipe installation, adjustment of the dosing and filtering installations, ventilation, water heating, lighting and power supply. Therefore it is desirable to charge works on construction and mounting of the equipment to the reliable checked company having the corresponding specialization, well trained personnel and the necessary equipment. Otherwise expenses can not meet expectations.
Anyway, whether construction of the pool on the site is planned by own forces or the civil engineering firm will be attracted, first of all the project of the pool has to be developed. Design is considered set of factors: location, number of bathers, use frequency, exterior, availability of fountains, geysers, hydromassage, countercurrent, etc.
First of all, it is necessary to decide on where the pool – in the territory of the site or directly in the house will be built?
“Home” pools have advantages which especially will accept fans to swim for a while at all seasons of the year and in any weather or just admirers of active lifestyle. Such pool does not need preservation for the winter, it is ready to accept swimmers regardless of vagaries of the weather.
But the pool located in the house demands carrying out complex of actions which will eliminate the increased humidity, unpleasant smells and other troubles. Otherwise its owners will not manage to avoid unsticking of wall-paper, the falling-off plaster, emergence of mold on furniture, things and walls of the house. The room with the pool has to be equipped with good ventilation system, air dryers are also installed. To prevent intensive evaporation of water, it is necessary to monitor maintenance of certain ratio between air temperature and waters (air has to be warmer than water by 1-2 degrees). For same it is necessary to get roller blinds or specialized film coatings which will close the surface of the pool when do not use it. Such coverings in the rest of the time are reeled up on drum. Besides and facing of the room with the pool has to resist to successfully increased humidity. All this costs rather much.
Partially similar problems can be solved if the pool is located not in the territory of the house, and in the heated extension. In that case the humidity will not threaten internal buildings. If there is no possibility of construction of extension from the material similar to used at construction of the house, it can be made of the glazed aluminum shapes or, it is even better if over the pool the design collected from plastic windows is constructed. They will be more expensive, but at the same time heat in such room will remain much better, and it is not necessary to warm the Universe.
For the same who is going to use the pool only in warm season the outdoor pool located out of rooms will become the best option. However and it has features. Such designs demand labor-intensive processes — preservation for the winter and, naturally, degreasings with arrival of heat. The street pool will demand bigger consumption of chemical reagents. Besides become soiled it much quicker closed, so on the equipment more serious loading will lay down and it should be cleaned much more often. It should be noted — installation over the outdoor pool of specialized sliding coating will help not only to prolong swimming season and to be protected from vagaries of the weather, but also, in certain measure, to prevent hit of leaves, dirt and other garbage in water.
The bowl filled by water – the main part of the pool from the constructional point of view. Bowls can be steel concrete, assembly (polypropylene or metal) and all-cast.
Bowls from steel concrete
Construction of the outdoor steel concrete pool is connected with the main complexity on installation of good bowl. First of all, it is necessary to explore the soil. Mainly gravelisty, rocky, clayey, loamy, sandy and sandy grounds can become suitable earth foundation. The peaty or oozy soils having property of deformation under loading the basis under steel concrete bowl cannot be. The bowl constructed on such soil, most likely, will crack. Except type of soil it is necessary to find out availability of soil odes and their aggression, sag of soil, depth of its freezing.
Owners of the limy, sandy or other soil which is passing water should be engaged in the device of good drainage. Otherwise in the winter the frozen underground waters will squeeze out bowl from the earth (if it on negligence or ignorance will winter empty). The steel concrete bowls equipped not on the soil, and on the floor of the house use metal or steel concrete interfloor overlappings which lean on the system of columns and wall as the basis. Naturally, the project has to consider pool loading.
Construction of steel concrete bowl will demand performance of the following works. First of all, the ditch under the necessary sizes escapes. The bottom of ditch becomes covered by base course of sand. After it the cement and sand tie and external waterproofing keeps within. The timbering in which steel concrete for receiving bowl is filled in is built. Thickness of walls and bottom of bowl – 25 centimeters. The final stage consists in alignment of walls cement and sand tie and laying of internal waterproofing. The internal waterproofing represents the elastic polymeric and cement structure creating the effect of rubber bag doing bowl of completely waterproof.
Before to create such bowl, it is necessary to provide waterproofing of mortgage elements which will be inserted into it at underpouring: ground draining, the water giving nozzles, searchlight, hydromassage nozzles, etc. Before beginning having filled in with concrete, mortgage elements are wrapped in water-repellent cord. When their mounting is planned after installation of bowl, special traffic jams are inserted into the places allocated under arrangement of mortgage elements.
Mounting comes to the end with external surface finishing of the steel concrete pool. It can be made of different materials. The mosaic and color tile are most beautiful, strong and long-lasting. And in case of violation of such covering absolutely small repair works will be necessary.
The surface of the pool can be trimmed also by soft polyvinyl chloride film. It can be with antiskid effect, rough, impregnated with the antibacterial structures containing growth of microflora. The film is reinforced by strong polyester fabric, its thickness – 15 millimeters. This material does not burn out, is ecologically pure, keeps working qualities at fall of temperature to -35 °C, but is afraid of spring — pieces of ice keen edges can cut covering.
The scheme of mounting consists that on pine forest along perimeter metal sections (tape or corner) fasten, from one of the parties of which the sputtering is put. The film is welded on upon fixing profiles by hot air. In the same way flippers undergo welding among themselves, and welds condense with sealant. As a result the “bag” executed in pool form turns out. However, colors of film are limited to shades of blue color which, at sufficient professionalism of the assembler and desire of the customer can be made in applique of different color.
The main minus of such way — the requirement for replacement of film of times in 5 years. The film covering costs 30% of the total costs of construction of the pool. Means, in 10 years of operation it is necessary to spend 60% of cost of the new pool for it. Besides it is possible to stack film without efforts only on plain surfaces with right angles, bowls of irregular shape will demand difficult cut of material and large number of joints.
Such pools can have the different sizes and the form, to be located on the site or in the house. They can be buried in soil partially or completely, and pools with round shape can be established completely on surface.
For combined pools the concrete reinforced bed with smooth horizontal surface 15-20 centimeters thick is prepared. On the basis as lining material heat insulation and geotextiles is established.
The bowl of the combined pool can be made of metal or polypropylene. Metal represent the concrete beds, walls executed from high-yield-point steel, zinced from two parties and which are in addition coated and it is delicious, internal waterproofing from PVC film and heat insulation. Some metal basins can conservations for the winter, others demand dismantling.
Other option of production – the integral bowl welded from sheets of polypropylene. Polypropylene – environmentally friendly, steady against ultraviolet and chemical reagents, strong plastic. Material is exported from Europe, allows to save on warm and waterproofing materials, on finishing work and the total costs of construction.
The technology of thermal polyfusional welding allows to receive sealed containers of any size and form. The tightness is not broken by the built-in mortgage hydrotechnical elements. One more advantage of similar bowl consists that polypropylene at the same time performs basic function at the same time carrying out tasks of waterproofing and internal coating of the pool.
The bowl is put on the prepared concrete site then its perimeter is filled in with concrete. At the same time construction of timbering as in this quality plastic acts is not required. Also further external finishing is not required – polypropylene maintains brilliant uniform coloring for many years. The surface of bowl does not slide, it is safe and economic. However, the color gamma of plastic is not too wide: there is plastic white, blue, light blue, dark blue, lime and green.
If it is going to bury the pool in soil, then the surface adjoining to the earth waterproofs and concreted. If burying partial, then walls become stronger basic beaming that does not demand their concreting.
Composite, fiber glass pools
All listed above pools demand construction of concrete bowls, and, so terrestrial, concrete and welded work. Several months the site will be occupied by builders and, naturally, is covered with dirt, water and sand. But composite, fiber glass pools help to avoid these troubles.
In this case construction of bowl comes down to preparation of ditch, charge its crushed stone and installation of the pool. Mounting works and to connection take no more than several days. Composite, fiber glass pools – the all-cast products representing the pie consisting of composite materials in section. Very strong plastic painted in one of 744 flowers acts as top layer. The subsequent layer provides elasticity of bowl, deprives of it fragility. It provides protection against soil shrinkage or shift. If under the pool the emptiness is formed, there is nothing terrible as in the design eightfold margin of safety is put. All loading is transferred to strong bowl, but not to concrete, as in the previous options. The following 6 layers — the reinforced fibreglass. And complete stiffening fin design.
Such pools do not demand connection of mortgage elements, all hydraulic engineering is mounted at manufacturer. On site it is only necessary to connect stations of dosing and filters.
Systems of water exchange
But the pool represents not just the bowl filled by water. In order that this water always freshened also clean, the pool is equipped with set of water-purifying water treatment equipment. On the systems of water exchange pools are separated into several types:
- flowing pools;
- drain-bulk pools;
- recirculation pools.
The flowing method means continuous updating of water. Dirty goes to the sewerage, and from water supply system to the pool clean constantly moves.
The drain-bulk method is that dirty water merges manually, the bottom and walls are cleaned, and then the pool is filled before the following shift of water and cleaning again.
Both methods are uneconomical, consume large amount of water and are reasonable only in cases when the counter hydrometer is not installed. Besides, except inlet – exhaust ports and ground draining (necessary for the flowing pool) they do not demand mortgage elements and other equipment. And to drain-bulk pools in general the hose and the simplest pump suffices.
The most modern and progressive method – recirculation. In such system water does not go to the sewerage, and is exposed to biological and mechanical cleaning then it is again used in the pool. Such option allows to use not replaced water for several years.
The recirculation method of water treatment is also divided into two ways: skimmer and overflow.
Skimmer system is called the method at which water is pumped through the nozzles which are built in bowl boards. It leaves on the filtration unit by means of the device which is built in in board – the skimmer. The used water by means of the pump passes through the pipeline in the filtering element, gets warm up to the necessary temperature, then in the system of disinfecting (when it is provided), and after gets to the pool again. The thermostat controls temperature, and the height of water is supported by means of adjustment device: the float falls when falling level, the valve opens water current and the pool is filled to the necessary level. Pluses of skimmer system: ease of mounting and operation, simplicity of preservation, low cost of set of expenses.
In the overflow pool the scheme according to which the water arriving from nozzles rises and gets to the overflow trench in pool perimeter is used. Then on the pipeline it gets to overflow tank. In tank the automatic machine supporting level and regulating operation of the pump banishing water via the filter and the heater is installed. After cleaning and heating water returns to the pool.
In overflow pools water exchange is more intensive, than in skimmer, from surface dirt is removed better. However they also are about 30% more expensive.
Preparation, water treatment
In water which is for the first time filled in to the pool to bathe at once it will not turn out. Obtaining necessary level of acidity (7.2-7.6 pH) and disinfection requires shock dose of chemical reactants. Before the pool can be used, its systems have to work not less than a week in order that water has passed set of times through filters and became absolutely transparent and clean.
The filtering installations are intended, first of all, for cleaning of water from garbage. But, besides, water has to get rid also of bacteria. Usually disinfecting is done by means of food chlorine, also other methods can be used: quartz treatment, ozonization, ultra-violet radiation. There were also medicines replacing chlorine, they use active oxygen. Combinations of these ways help to achieve decrease in dose of chlorine. However finally it is impossible to refuse it as chlorine helps to reach the most effective disinfecting. Besides to it is not present equal on ratio between the price and the gained effect. Days of wall of bowl are cleaned the special vacuum cleaners connected either to the skimmer, or to special nozzles. There are also robots – cleaners of bottom of pools.
Bathers of any age, and furthermore children, adore water entertainments: artificial waves, countercurrent, hydromassage, etc. For this purpose in the pool the built-in or hinged devices can be installed. If desired the pool can be equipped with falls, fountains, benthonic streams or geysers which will give esthetic pleasure. Such devices are implemented separately, but, most often, demand embedding of additional elements in bowl.
Street pools will demand obligatory winter preservation. The pool remains in the filled state – it helps to avoid extrusion from soil of bowl and breakdown of walls. The bottom and walls are cleaned from pollution. With the filtration unit number of operations are carried out, and are added means for winter preservation which interferes with emergence of seaweed to water. Water is filled to level below edge of nozzles on 10 centimeters. Reduction of pressure force of ice by walls of the pool is reached by the fact that expansion compensators fall to water: sheets of polyfoam, partially sand-filled plastic canisters, the loaded air mattresses, tires. Searchlights (if they are) are dismantled, wires are isolated and attached to the upper edges of perimeter, in the body of searchlights, nozzles and openings of skimmers are established the foam compensators. The countercurrent and other devices are dismantled. The hydraulic system located on surface understands, from it residues of water merge, is cleaned and cleans up on storage. In cases if dismantling of hydraulic system is impossible, from it water is completely pumped out and the filter is disconnected. After dismantling of the equipment the pool is closed by surface cover.
All above says that the pool can be picked up on any purse and taste. When choosing the pool it is worth remembering that its cost will depend on quality and reliability. The more it is necessary to pay, the longer it will serve and the smaller sum should be spent for operation. Besides each pool has both pluses, and minuses therefore the optimal variant is selected under specific case and personal requirements.