Table of Contents
Reality such is that not all happy owners of own parcels, whether it be small giving or large country possession, can brag of the central water supply. It is possible to get used, of course, and to such conditions. However the majority chooses arrangement of autonomous water supply system. For this purpose it will be required to drill the well on the site that it is quite possible to make independently.
Ways of drilling
There are several ways of drilling:
- Shock and rope
The technique consists in dissecting of breed heavy boring shell which rises over surface by height about 2 m and with force falls by the place of drilling. The tool is equipped with the cutting-fascinating adaptation located at its bottom edge. The device breaks soil and captures him. The boring shell depending on type of the soil can have different appearance. During drilling operations to the well it is necessary to fill in water, clean or in mix with clay that facilitates process and does not allow walls to be showered. Later liquid ladle out from the well special ladle.
The way assumes obligatory use of boring tripod. The construction about two meters high has to be mounted over the site of drilling. The upper part of the device is supplied with the block via which stretch rope. By its end strongly fix boring shell which will fall and rise by means of rope. According to some “handymen” to construct tripod absolutely optional. Practice shows that without design it is possible to drill the well no more than 10 m in depth. However for this purpose it is required to make excessive physical efforts which can have an adverse effect on the state of health. Therefore it is simpler and safer to work with tripod.
This way is very similar to already described shock and rope method. The only difference is that the boring shell makes not only percussions, but also rotational motions. What strengthens the efforts made for it and accelerates drilling process. Also the special ladle which will transport the soil which is beaten out by the tool on surface is required. This way is considered the best if it is required to equip the well in solid soil.
The simplest and widespread method of drilling. Uses special adaptation screw, the representing metal rod with screw surface, axially oriented. Blades of the tool destroy, take and take out soil on surface. Two technologies of auger drilling using a little different tools differ. In the first case of the blade of the equipment are welded on axis at right angle. They cut the soil at an angle 90 °, crush it and lift upward. The main lack of such way is need in addition to extract soil which is inevitably showered from the boring tool to the well on surface.
This shortcoming the second technology is deprived. In this case blades are welded on axis at an angle, varying from 30 ° up to 70 °. The tool cuts the soil and, without crushing it, brings to the surface. In the well nothing gets, and additional works are not required. Regardless of technology on industrial drilling rigs supply of washing fluid in development is used. By means of the pump it downloads to the well and under pressure washes away dump. Pumping washing is hardly possible at manual drilling, however absolutely specialists do not recommend to refuse use of washing fluid.
From all ways of independent drilling by the least productive it is possible to consider screw. However it also and the simplest performed by therefore whenever possible choose it. However, the choice of method of work in many respects depends on soil type therefore before to begin drilling, it is worth carrying out its analysis. The screw way will be suitable for soft soil, and here for firm it will be useless. Here the percussive-rotary or shock and rope method will become optimal variant.
Preparation for drilling should be begun with clarification of level of bedding of water-bearing layer on the site. It can be done in land committee or at the closest neighbors who have already equipped the well. It is necessary to consider that if water is at depth more than 20 meters or soil too firm, then manual drilling, most likely, is impossible. In that case it is necessary to ask for the help specialists or to rent the professional drilling rig.
The place for drilling needs to be chosen taking into account some requirements. All potential sites of pollution have to be as it is possible further from water source. It is recommended to adhere to the following norms: the distance from dumps, gas station, the industrial enterprises, etc. has to make not less than 100 m. Waste and cesspools – 50 m, septic tanks or settlers – 30 m and from residential units – 7 m. Diameter of future well has to be sufficient in order that to it the casing pipe with a diameter of 11-12 cm was located.
On the chosen place the so-called directing deepening is dug out. It represents normal hole of 1.5х1.5 m in size which depth is from 1 to 1.5 m. The construction is necessary to prevent fall of top soil. To keep walls of hole and not to allow them to be showered, they are strengthened by means of boards or metal plates of the suitable size.
We collect tripod for drilling
For the simplest option it will be required to find three metal pipes which can be replaced with bar with a section of 15-20 cm. Length of parts – 4 or 5 meters. Works on assembly of tripod are carried out in the following sequence:
- We stack constructive parts on the earth, having unrolled two “legs” in one party, and remained – in opposite.
- In each part we drill opening under fastening element as which the thin pipe or something similar can act.
- We fasten design “legs” among themselves by means of the part passed throughout openings, we fix it so that the construction has not broken in use.
- We install the block on which the rope will freely move above tripod.
- We mount motor winch by means of which the boring shell will rise.
- We fix rope and on it we fix drill.
The equipment is ready for operation.
Independent shock and rope drilling
This way is theoretically applicable for any soil, however, before to use it, it is worth thinking of expediency of such works. As, for example, soft soil can be quite drilled by means of the screw that is less labor-consuming. Independent drilling requires the following equipment: tripod with the winch, rope or rope, special shock bar and drive glass. The last is the main tool for this purpose like drilling. The shell represents tube section of the necessary diameter, in its lower part the strengthened cutting edge is located. For more effective work it has bevel in glass. The upper part of the equipment is equipped with anvil which the shock bar beats.
The winch lifts drive glass over face then it with effort falls down. The tool crashes into soil, and its part remains in hollow glass. Friction forces hold slime in shell when it rises up. To lower the tool as low as possible, use shock bar. The element is lifted and with force struck with it drive glass. After several blows are made, the boring shell filled with soil is taken out outside and devastated. After cleaning the procedure repeats. It is necessary to know that drive glasses are used only for drilling of not loose and soft breeds.
For loose soil the bailer is used. This adaptation differs from glass in availability of the valve in the lower part of the device. When deepening shell to the soil it opens and gives the chance to the loose soil to get inside. At rise the valve is closed, interfering with slime emptying. The bailer is taken out on surface, cleaned and repeat the cycle. Strong stony breeds pass by means of boring chisel. Its blows break and crush soil which is taken out afterwards from face by means of bailer.
Drilling in loose soils or in breed with layers from such soil demands immediate strengthening of walls of the well. For these purposes use casing pipes which fall to construction along with drilling. At the same time it is necessary to consider that diameter of pipes for upsetting column has to exceed diameter of the boring tool so that the shell had opportunity freely to move in the well. It turns out that diameter actually of the well is less than diameter of upsetting column which falling, cuts off soil from construction walls.
In the course of drilling of strong breeds the pipe is not able to remove excesses of breed from well walls therefore it will be required to use special adaptation which is called the dilator. The tool is equipped with mobile cutters which develop when it enters casing pipe. Later, when the equipment leaves the lower part of column the spring bringing cutters to operating condition works. They disperse in the parties and are ready to cut off soil, increasing diameter of construction.
Independent equipment of the well by screw method
The simplest option to get the necessary equipment – to buy the folding and combined device for drilling. It consists of compact tower, the drive and the working tool screw with additional bars and fastenings. If it is impossible, it is quite possible to prepare the equipment independently. First of all we prepare drill. It can be made in several ways. Very often national handymen upgrade in boring shell screws from old combines.
On the upper end of the improvised drill the coupling with thread is mounted, it is necessary for fastening on the tool of the extending bars. The tubular lower part is transformed to similarity of the screw. Besides at distance about 0.8 m from the spiral termination of drill at an angle in 25 ° are welded on horizontal two knives. One more version of independently manufactured tool – design on the basis of normal fishing ice axe. On its clockwork edges the strengthened cutters are welded and the device for well-drilling is ready.
Except actually screw also the extending bars will be necessary. They represent normal metal pipes with a diameter about 25 mm. It is better that on the ends of parts the thread has been put, so will fasten them among themselves more simply. If it is impossible, connection is carried out by means of steel fastening finger. The cross handle by means of which screwing up of the screw in soil will be made is welded on one of parts. It should be taken into account that length of the welded handle has to be bigger. So by the rule of its lever it will be much easier to turn.
Prior to works it is necessary to take care also of casing pipes. Without their application the well will quickly drag on soil and will become useless. Parts interfere with fall of walls of construction and do not allow high water to get into design. As casing pipes easy plastic parts of sufficient diameter are most often used. It is necessary to think of way of their connection. It can be both thread, and soldering. The quantity of pipes just before the beginning of works cannot be defined as the exact level of bedding of water is unknown. Calculations are carried out approximately.
Drilling of the well
Actually works on drilling of the well are carried out as follows:
- Over the prepared directing deepening we mount tripod. The drill is installed into place and we begin to screw in in soil. It is the best of all to perform operation together. One person will not be able to turn the tool.
- After everyone three, at most four, turns the tool is taken on surface by means of rope and carefully cleaned.
- After deepening of drill more than on one meter we start forming of upsetting column. For this purpose we lower pipe to the well, lining with sledge hammer, accurately we advance it to the well. In process of burying of part we increase design, carrying out airtight and reliable joints of elements. However, it is quite possible to establish upsetting column after the end of drilling. In this case pipes on one lower down and as required connect among themselves. Essential lack of this way – need of additional cleaning of the well of the soil showered in the course of work.
- As soon as the screw falls by all length of shell, we increase it by means of additional bar. Places of fastening have to be strong and not have backlashes and motions.
- Periodically we check vertical position of installation of upsetting column. As soon as blows of drill about pipe walls begin to be heard, it becomes signal of trunk curvature. It can be corrected, having hammered wedges from tree between wall and casing pipe.
Works are continued until the boring shell does not open roof of cracked limestone which accumulates water in the cavities, or there will not pass the water-bearing sandy stratum. Now it is important not to bury pipe, otherwise it will block access of water to the well. After the first water inflow in construction we wait for about an hour, then we pump out it the pump and we check extent of its pollution. We repeat actions several times before emergence of transparent water. The sample taken from it can be given to laboratory on research where will define its suitability for drink.
Having pumped out water last time, we leave the well till next day. We check as far as there has arrived water in night, and we define approximate debit of the well. The satisfactory result is several cubic meters an hour. If debit acceptable, we finish drilling operations and we begin construction of surface facilities for the well.
The bottom of construction is carefully cleaned from slime and we fill up gravel or small crushed stone. Width of drainage course has to be 20-30 cm. The space between walls and casing pipes can be filled up with gravel or to fill in with cement slurry to create additional protection against underground waters. It is possible to start further construction of surface facilities for the well.
As practice shows, manual well-drilling is quite possible. It is worth treating this difficult business with all responsibility: it is correct to choose way of drilling, to pick up materials, to attentively study recommendations and instructions and only after that to begin works. The result of the spent efforts, clear water from own well, will please for many years.