Table of Contents
Supporting general theoretical rejection of use of the objects made of synthetic materials nevertheless it is necessary to recognize that the separate chemical compositions are simply irreplaceable in our everyday life. Transparent epoxy resin for filling concerns those. Admiring external naturalness of artificial amber or the shining purity of table-top “from stone”, we do not even think of origin of material.
What is epoxy resin, characteristics of material
Pitch is substance which hardens under certain conditions. Distinguish pitches natural (wood) and synthetic. Epoxy resin represents polymeric pitch, that is the chemical composition from oligomer – molecules with small limited weight.
Main characteristics of this substance:
- moisture resistance, to ultraviolet;
- it is not subject to influence of acids, alkalis, halogens;
- it is dissolved in acetone and esters;
- does not emit harmful volatiles.
Composition of transparent epoxy resin – two-component. The final product turns out during implementation of two chemical processes. At the first stage low-molecular linear thermoplastic weight is created. On the second, representing curing, by means of receiving in it space structure solid, insoluble and not fusible substance is formed.
The ability to turn quickly from liquid state into firm is very valuable property of epoxy resin. In addition, it can strongly stick together surfaces. The set of the listed above characteristics also does this structure demanded.
Main methods of application of transparent epoxy resin
Scope of epoxy resin rather wide. Substance is actively used both in house conditions, and on production. Constantly improved production processes, receiving all new and new structures with the improved qualities increase possibilities of application.
Traditionally pitch is applied to filling on different productions in the following purposes:
- for treatment of fiber glass, pasting of parts. Sphere of use: construction, aircraft industry and mechanical engineering, radio electronics, electrical equipment, fibreglass production, repair of vessels and cars;
- for creation of waterproofing course. Material is applied at covering of walls of buildings with the increased humidity, basements, pools and other reservoirs to liquids;
- in need of creation of chemical-resistant coverings for outer and internal surfaces and also for drawing protective layer on cellular materials;
- for filling in forms for the purpose of receiving transparent parts and objects which can be cut, ground afterwards, that is be exposed to machining.
Helpful advice! If necessary to stick together firm surfaces it is better to buy special epoxy glue, but not to use any composition of pitch. The effect of connection will be anyway, but special material will allow to carry out process with higher quality and effectively.
Initial characteristics of transparent epoxy resin
Practically all types of epoxy resin in initial state are transparent. Some can have yellowish shade. After connection with hardener the yellowness does not disappear. Surely it is necessary to consider it in case of need to have transparent epoxy layer.
Some types of polymer having high viscosity after hardening form the bubbles considerably reducing effect of transparency. It is possible to get rid of them by means of heating which should be executed before filling or after it, in the latter case apply torches or other heating systems. Process this quite troublesome and not always yields ideal result.
Ready hand-made articles from epoxy resin can lose transparency at influence of the ultraviolet and oxygen which is contained in air eventually. Such troubles can be avoided only if to use pitches with availability as a part of UV protectors and antioxidants.
Therefore, when choosing epoxy resin for the purpose of receiving solid transparent material it is necessary to consider the following:
- pitch shade before introduction of additives;
- viscosity degree;
- chemical composition.
Transparent epoxy resins can be used as for production of small parts (jewelry, souvenirs, decor), and for larger fillings (table-tops, shelves, etc.). The technology of use of epoxy resin can differ depending on features of products.
Helpful advice! To be sure (especially when performing big fillings) that the composition of pitch is suitable for goals it is better to get sampler – capacity with small amount.
Features of process of preparation of epoxy resin for filling
Preparation of composition of epoxy resin has to be carried out according to the instruction which in this or that look is attached to each capacity. The lack of the description of the sequence of actions demonstrates doubtful qualities of goods which for certain have also no certification.
When mixing components of epoxy resin of proportion play the major role. Standard ratio of pitch and hardener – 10:1. In special structures the proportion can change from 5:1 to 20:1. Ways of preparation of small and considerable volumes also have differences. For small quantity it is enough only hashing. Big weight should be warmed up previously to lower viscosity degree. At the same time it is necessary to consider that increase in temperature by 10 °C accelerates polymerization at least twice.
Warming up pitch, it is required to control temperature indicators. If substance begins to boil, it will begin to foam, grow turbid. Such structure for use is unsuitable. It is possible to reduce viscosity by means of thinners. It is necessary to consider that even 5–7% of such additives in structure considerably reduce quality of material.
The problem how to clean, that is than to dissolve epoxy resin, keeps the relevance. It is better not to allow full hardening of spots. If nevertheless it has occurred, efficiently is most mechanical, but it is applicable not to all surfaces. Use of special solvent for pitches also does not provide preservation of surface. If conditions allow, it is possible to apply warming up or freezing.
Any of ways does not give guarantee of full cleaning.
How to make epoxy resin in house conditions
It is simple to prepare epoxy resin in house conditions. For this purpose it is required to prepare necessary container, measured capacity and stick (or other similar subject) for stirring.
Process of production of epoxy resin the hands includes several stages:
- Choice of the room. It has to be ventilated, have temperature about 25 °C and low level of humidity.
- Performance of trial connection. It is necessary to mix epoxy resin in small amount. If characteristics (transparency degree, viscosity, hardening time) arrange, it is possible to pass to full volume.
- Use of cold way of mixing. It is necessary to add 1 part of hardener to 10 parts of pitch. It is necessary to stir with identical intensity and in one direction – in that case weight will be more homogeneous.
Helpful advice! In house conditions it is better not to prepare large volumes (more than 5 kg). When mixing a lot of heat energy which will accelerate polymerization is emitted and will quickly make structure unsuitable to the use.
To understand how to make epoxy resin rather flexible, it is also necessary to execute trial connection taking into account all fillers planned for application.
Hardeners for epoxy resin: functions, types, features of application
For epoxy mix it was already told about importance of the correct use of hardeners above. To understand how to dissolve epoxy resin with hardener, it is necessary to know qualities and distinctive properties of the last. Characteristics of structure in general are determined by features of additive.
Hardeners for epoxy resin on chemical signs are divided into two views.
Aminnye. Amines, diamines, polyamines are their part. These are the most widespread hardeners which are most often applied in life owing to usability. They do not demand creation of certain temperature conditions, process takes place even at room indicators. This way of curing is called cold.
Acid hardeners. Are created on the basis of acids and their anhydrides (maleic, phthalic, hexahydrophthalic and others). It should be noted that the quality of the hardened layer in the presence of acid additives is much higher. However process of application is much more difficult as heating (100-200 °C) of weight for improvement of its physical and chemical properties is required. This way of curing is called hot.
The price of epoxy resin (complete with filler) in many respects depends on type of hardener.
Helpful advice! Considering the importance of hardener for quality of the end result, you should not save on the price and to take cheap forms. It is better to buy the options recommended by the manufacturer for epoxy resin of a specific type.
Whether it is possible to make hardener for epoxy resin with own hands
Use of epoxy resin demands exact respect for certain technologies. Therefore it is better to use ready structures. Situations when epoxy resin remained, and hardener is spent, meet quite often. Whether there is alternative that is whether it is possible most to make this component? It is possible, but only provided that necessary chemical components will be acquired and are connected in the necessary quantity.
It is possible to find in available sale CHS-Hardener P-11, Telalit 410, dietilentriamin. The quality of the hardener received during house production surely should be estimated in the test way, that is having mixed with pitch in small amount. To understand how to dissolve epoxy resin and trial hardener, it is possible to take the following advice and algorithm of actions:
- To prepare the small capacity and two volumetric glass or the syringe. When using syringes it is easier to control quantitative indices of liquids.
- To gain certain amount of pitch in one syringe, to pour out in capacity. Then to gather hardener in other syringe and in proportion 10:1 to enter it into pitch.
- To intensively place structure, but without use of electromechanisms, to leave to harden on the surface assumed for use (or on similar).
- To watch polymerization process. In need of introduction of amendments it is necessary to address besides to method, but using other proportions.
As hardener in house conditions it is possible to use dry alcohol. It should be crushed and connected to pitch in proportion 10:1. This way needs also to be tested on small volumes.
Important! It is necessary to connect substances in such sequence as it is stated above. Otherwise polymerization process can be accelerated and will not yield objective results.
The plasticizer as filler for epoxy resin
Along with hardener necessary component of epoxy resin is the plasticizer. The products made using such filler do not burst and do not break. Surely it is necessary to add the plasticizer when using large volumes of epoxy resin, that is for creation of thick layers as cracks can be formed even in the course of hardening.
One of plasticizers for epoxy resin is dibutylphthalate, in abbreviated form. Substance quite difficult mixes up with pitch therefore plasticity level low. Additive is quite enough for protection of products against cracking during hardening, from low temperatures. For strengthening of effect mixing of pitch and this plasticizer carry out on water bath.
S-7106 thinner is actively applied to plasticization of epoxy resins. At its addition it is necessary to use hardener in normal proportion to total quantity of structure. That is and 100 g of this thinner it is necessary to add 110 g of hardener to 10 kg of pitch.
Glue epoxy substances can be rigid and flexible. Rigid have pitch and hardener in structure. Flexible are issued with the additives which are slowing down hardening process, but providing stronger adhesion. To answer unambiguously how many epoxy glue with such filler dries, it is impossible. Time in many respects depends on temperature conditions. If there were no violations of production process, then peak value – 24 hours.
Products from epoxy resin: jewelry, furniture, decor
Transparent epoxy resin – means multifunction. Using it, it is possible to execute finished products, to decorate models from other material, to connect separate parts in whole. The effect of art processing is present at any element where such polymer is applied. The transparency gives similarity to glass. This property promotes wide use of epoxy resin during creation of souvenirs.
The filled-in natural materials: leaflets, flowers, cones, grains, etc. – become interesting hand-made articles. Epoxy resin gives in to kolerovka, and it allows to apply material to production of different jewelry. Exclusive Coulomb, earrings, clip-on earrings, brooches, hairpins and other accessories are very popular with modern women of fashion. Material properties gives the chance to create imitations of gemstones which distinguish from natural only specialists can.
Modern design developments – furniture from epoxy resin. Original and strong table-tops, shelves, decorative elements of backs, legs can be met in interiors of rooms of the different style directions. Recently transparent epoxy resin began to be used for creation of floor with 3D – effect.
Variety of products from epoxy resin and tree
Epoxy resin and tree – fine both with esthetic, and from the practical point of view combination. The polymeric structure fills wood time, provides reliable connection and forms strong covering or insert. The price of epoxy resin high, but if to consider quality of handmade jewelry or exclusive options of furniture, then use of this chemical composition is quite justified.
Epoxy resin can fill wooden forms contours or create top layer. The first way is often used at production of jewelry. Hollow rings, hearts, asterisks, leaflets are, etc. filled in with the painted or transparent structure, reminding amber, emerald, ruby or just creating volume.
The second way is applied at production of furniture. The layer of pitch is applied on basis, the original table-top as a result turns out. As decor different subject inserts can be used.
Of tree and epoxy resin do shelves, flower stands, vases. Products can be highlighted by the luminescent or fluorescent additives brought directly in epoxy structure or by means of LED tape.
Helpful advice! At production of products from transparent epoxy resin and tree it is necessary to avoid hit on polymeric layer of waste of processing of wood. It can reduce effect of transparency considerably.
Original products from epoxy resin the hands
Epoxy resin allows to implement the creative ideas, without spending for it many forces and time. As it has been told above, it is simple to prepare transparent structure independently. Further it is possible to create exclusive ornament – bracelet on hand.
For this purpose will be necessary:
- transparent polymeric structure;
- forms for epoxy resin – molds;
- decor (dried flowers, coins, artificial or natural stones, etc.).
It is necessary to lay out in shape decor, to fill in with mix, by means of toothpick to correct subject inserts, to remove bubbles (if they have appeared), to allow to stiffen. The finished product should be ground (it is possible milling cutter for nails), to varnish.
Simply to make unusual shelf with illumination of epoxy resin. For this purpose the piece of edging board, the tool will be necessary for grinding, pitch, hardener, luminescent powder.
Shelf fabrication stages:
- Board to grind, remove bark and leaky adjacent knots. The more defects at wood, the more original the product will turn out.
- To dissolve pitch, having entered all fillers, to fill in cracks and hollows on all surface, to allow to stiffen. If defects are available on edge of preparation, the restrictive side which should be made previously of thin metal or wood boards will be required.
- To grind product and to hang up on wall.
It is worth counting, how much are epoxy resin, fillers and piece of edging board. The sum corresponding to the most inexpensive shelf from chipboard turns out, but on decorative effect of product are incomparable.
Transparent epoxy resin for filling: advice to the beginning modellers
The skill comes with experience. In case of use of epoxy resin it is especially relevant as a lot of things need to be tried and checked. For beginners several advice which will help to seize quicker such available at first sight, but rather whimsical material will be useful:
- The price of transparent epoxy resin high, depends on assignment and the chemical composition. That expenses were not vain, it is worth beginning any work with testing.
- When using forms for filling it is necessary to grease them with technical petroleum jelly for fast extraction of finished products.
- It is required to close working surface where filling, will be carried out by oilcloth or thin wood boards. Paper will not provide necessary protection.
- In case of education in epoxy resin of flakes or balls it is necessary to heat liquid, but no more than to 60 °C.
- At emergence in the stiffening layer of bubbles it is possible to remove easily them, having inserted straw and having blown through it.
- It is worth approaching the low cost of epoxy resin deliberately. Products from such material can quickly turn yellow. It is necessary to look for the mark “filter” in packaging or capacity.
- Before use of transparent epoxy resin useful will be to put it to the closed heat source, for example, to the battery – the structure will quicker harden.
Helpful advice! Upon purchase of transparent epoxy resin it is necessary to pay attention to effective life. Standard indicator – 12 months. If it is less, the structure, most likely, has low qualitative characteristics.
How to use epoxy resin: safety rules
Epoxy resin, as well as many other chemical compositions, demands the careful address with it, observance of certain rules. They generally concern structure in liquid state. Some epoxy components can cause burns, dermatitis, poisonings, to affect upper airways. Knowing how to work with epoxy resin, it is possible to avoid damages and injuries.
Main safety requirements:
- It is impossible to make connection of components in the ware intended for cooking.
- Before work with epoxy resin it is necessary to put on overalls, including gloves. Previously it is necessary to apply protective cream on hands.
- Works on machining of the hardened material need to be performed wearing spectacles and respirator.
- If the epoxy structure nevertheless has got on skin, it is necessary to wash away immediately it warm water with soap or to wipe the tampon, the wetted in the denatured alcohol.
- Works with epoxy resin can be carried out only in those rooms where the supply and exhaust ventilation is organized.
Despite market saturation, all new and new epoxy structures appear. This material makes the serious competition to wood, glass, metal, ceramics. Products from it strong, reliable, long do not lose esthetics. In addition to high practicality, transparent epoxy resin gives the chance of creation of interesting home decoration. On condition of the correct technology of use epoxy resin – universal material for work and creativity.