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Unfortunately, from year to year the cost of 1 cubic meter of natural gas or 1 kW of the electric power considerably increases. During the warm period of year increase in rates is not so notable, however during the winter period owners of country housing are forced either to overpay, or to spend energy resources more economically that not always perhaps if in family there are small children.
The owner of owner-occupied dwelling in any way cannot influence reduction of tariffs for energy resources, however, exit from current situation is – it is full heat insulation of the bearing main walls. Let’s try to understand all nuances and technologies of this work.
What material to choose for warming of country house?
In our country mineral wool or sheet expanded polystyrene is applied to warming of load bearing walls in 90% of cases. When choosing heat insulator, first of all, consider type of country house and also what material was used at construction of load bearing walls. For example, sheet expanded polystyrene, it is polyfoam, generally apply to warming of brick walls, shell rock, silicate blocks or mass concrete. At the same time walls from above-mentioned materials can be warmed also mineral wool in the form of plates. However expanded polystyrene is not suitable for warming of walls of the house from bar or the rounded log. It is axiom — for warming of wooden walls exclusively mineral wool of rolled or plate type is used.
It is necessary to tell that heat conductivity indicator at mineral wool and expanded polystyrene almost identical. Heat conductivity of plate mineral wool on average 0.04 W/sq.m. Heat conductivity of polystyrene foam leaf 50 mm thick averages 0.08 W/sq.m. At the same time, if to use polyfoam 80-100 mm thick, its heat conductivity will decrease to indicator of mineral wool. The less this coefficient, the is more effective heat-insulating material. For comparison, in situ walls from concrete have indicator of conductivity of heat of 1.3 W/sq.m. Wall from lime sand brick of 0.8 W/sq.m. Now it is clear why concrete is “colder” than other materials.
However heat conductivity of material is not the only indicator which is considered when choosing heat insulator. Take into account still such indicators as hygroscopicity and air conduction content — ventilability. Depends on hygroscopicity, how strongly material will grow damp, and from air conduction content — as quickly material will dry. Main walls of the brick house or concrete are less vulnerable to dampness, and, for example, walls from bar have to breathe constantly. For this reason if to make warming of wooden walls “not breathing” polyfoam, one-two winters later on inside face of walls the fungus or black mold can appear.
Conclusion: stone walls can be warmed sheet expanded polystyrene, basalt mineral wool, plates from fiber glass. Walls from tree — mineral wool with obligatory application of vapor barrier film.
As Uncle Sam warms walls
In the USA, Canada and also in some European countries the housebuilding on frame technology is strongly developed. Walls of the house represent the timber frame construction sheathed from two parties by plates of OSB (SMALLPOX) or moisture resistant thick wooden plywood. At heat insulation of stud walls the sputtering of frothed polyurethane foam under big pressure is made. The sputtering can be made opened or closed. The last way more expensive, however, at the closed way amplifies solidity of wall and its durability increases.
Considering that demand for frame housing continuously grows in our country, generally because of the low cost of 1 sq.m, warming of walls in sputtering of polyurethane foam begins to practice and our specialists. Of course, meanwhile the professional companies in this sphere works a little, but increase in demand for this way of warming increases every year.
Process of warming of walls expanded polystyrene
For warming polyfoam of walls will require to buy the following materials:
- Sheet expanded polystyrene from 50 to 100 mm thick;
- Glue for expanded polystyrene;
- PVC anchors with diameter of hat of 50 mm;
- Grid from fiber glass;
- Metal angle section;
- Front putty;
- Relief masonry paint or putty.
Warming of wall begins with surface preparation. From the plane of walls the foreign garbage or residues of the stiffened solution is removed and in need of wall process antifungal structure if the building old. Having prepared the plane of external walls, start glue production. Glue for expanded polystyrene is made in the small portions by no more than 10-15 kg for once. It is more convenient to make glue weight in plastic bucket basin with high walls.
Initially in net capacity pour about 5-8 liters of clear water. Further in water dry glue for expanded polystyrene is slowly filled up. The big mistake when the person on ignorance does on the contrary, that is, pours water into dry glue. In this case glue will instantly turn lumps and will be problematic to stir it to homogeneous structure. After charge of dry glue in water use the construction mixer to acceleration of process of stirring. For the lack of the mixer, quite often use the powerful perforator equipped with nozzle “revolving object” and the drillings transferred to the mode.
Having mixed glue weight to uniformity, it is left approximately for 5 minutes for completion of process of reaction then glue is repeatedly mixed. On density glue weight has to have consistence as 35% sour cream, that is to be dense and flexible. In parallel with production of glue on external corners of the warmed walls fix plumbs which will be reference point of corners. Also at the basis of socle of walls pull horizontally nylon thread. That thread was located ideally horizontally, use long leveling instrument or level on tripod.
Begin to mount sheets of polyfoam on glue usually from the left outside corner of wall. On the plane of sheet of expanded polystyrene small glue weight in 5-6 points is applied with spatula. At the same time glue is not stretched on the leaf plane, on the contrary create hills of the sizes about male fist. Further the leaf is overturned and put glue to wall, carrying out small pressing. After this sheet edge adjust to approximate horizontal and vertical thread and, holding leaf one hand, put to its plane vertically leveling instrument. Carrying out weak pressings or cottons palm, and being guided on leveling instrument, the sheet of polyfoam is exposed in ideal vertical position. All subsequent sheets in the first row are mounted similarly.
Having pasted the first row of sheets and, having waited for several hours, in each leaf perforate in thickness of wall 2 openings drill with diamond tip. Further the anchor from PVC with big hat is hammered into each opening, and pass to mounting of expanded polystyrene on all plane of wall. Sheets in horizontal ranks have like brickwork with bandaging. At the same time, having mounted 2-3 rows, make strengthening of mounting by means of PVC of anchors. Special attention is paid to outside corners. On the vertical extent of corner sheets of polyfoam have in chessboard order, surely being guided by the tense plumb thread.
After expanded polystyrene mounting, having waited for about 2 days, on all plane of polyfoam pull grid from fiber glass. To record temporarily armoring lattice, it is possible just having thrust in nail polyfoam on 100 mm. Further front putty is made by means of the mixer and on the received mix carry out mounting of metal section on all outside corners of wall and slopes in window openings. After that several hours wait until putty on metal section hardens, and apply spackling mix big with spatula on all plane of wall with previously tense grid from fiber glass. Usually putty is applied in two layers, allowing each layer it is good to dry. After putting hard putty the background with masonry paint or decorative finishing by relief putty is applied on the plane of walls.
Process of warming of wooden load bearing walls mineral wool
Materials are necessary for warming of walls mineral wool:
- Mineral wool in the form of plates;
- Vapor barrier film;
- Wooden bar with a section of 50х50 mm or 100х50 mm;
- Fasteners, self-tapping screws on tree, anchors;
- Antifungal structure;
- Finishing finishing material, front board or panels from PVC.
Warming of wooden walls is begun with mechanical removal from the plane of bar of dust and different garbage. Further brush or the roller make processing of wall surface by antifungal structure. At the same stage useful will be to process the plane of walls fire-resistant structure, after all after end warming of access to wooden surface will not be any more. After causing protective structure, wooden surface allow to dry out well and start mounting of vapor barrier film. The membrane vapor barrier film from two parties has different surface. On the one hand film smooth and glossy, on the other hand surface rough, strongly similar to felt. At the same time the vapor barrier film is surely mounted by the rough party to the surface of wood. Usually use the construction stapler and metal brackets to its fixing.
After mounting of vapor barrier film, on all plane of wall make marking and define points of arrangement of vertical bars. The interval between bars is usually set by 120-150 cm, and the section of vertical bars is determined proceeding from quantity of layers of plate mineral wool. For example, thickness of plate of mineral wool is on average equal to 50 mm, so for mounting of cotton wool in two layers it is necessary to use bar with a section of 100х50 mm. If winter temperature does not fall below 8-10 °C, for warming of walls it is possible to use unary plate of mineral wool and respectively it is necessary to make mounting of bar with a section of 50х50 mm. In both cases the wooden bar is mounted on long self-tapping screws on tree or expanding metal anchors.
Having mounted vertical wooden bars, pass to filling of space between them plate mineral wool. At the same time it is important to have plate of mineral wool inside. That to achieve it the plate is cut off on width 20-30 mm bigger, than distance between bars. Cutting of plate cotton wool can be made by normal stationery knife and does not present special difficulties. After placement of plate the inside sometimes it is in addition fixed metal anchors. Having filled all space between vertical bars mineral wool, over heat-insulating plates make mounting of the second vapor barrier film. Film have surely rough party to cotton wool and fix on the extent of bars by means of metal brackets.
At the following stage over metal brackets, by means of self-tapping screws make mounting of bar with a section of 50х30 mm. If brackets prevent to arrange exactly vertical bar a little, line them slightly with the hammer. The last vertical bars are necessary for creation between heat-insulating “pie” and finishing material of ventilation space in 30 mm. Thanks to this space in mineral wool will not accumulate the condensate capable to reduce its heat-insulating properties. Warming process over bars of front board or any other material chosen earlier comes to the end with mounting.