Table of Contents
The mankind spoiled by comfort stubborn does not wish to live in Spartan conditions. Even in the country, where there are no centralized utilities, owners of the real estate try to equip for themselves independent sewerage and water systems. If with the first everything is rather simple, then it is more difficult to install feed system of water, but after all, perhaps.
Well or well?
Water supply has to be carried out from any source. In most cases it can be the well or well. Each option has own advantages, however, the second is more widespread. And it is easily explainable because the well has some advantages:
- Possibility of independent arrangement. If desired it is possible to dig out well and to strengthen it the hands. Wells, especially deep, are drilled only specialists.
- Minimum costs of the system device. The financial investments, of course, will be necessary, but not in such sizes, as when mounting the well and the equipment servicing it.
- Well water-bearing channels are silted much less often even if long time do not use construction. If it after all has occurred, only skillful hands, bucket and shovel will be necessary for their cleaning. Whereas it is necessary to clean the well by means of the special equipment.
- Convenience in operation and service, easy access to nodes for repair. Simple process of preservation of construction. Everything is much more difficult for the systems including the well.
- In case of interruption in supply of electricity water if necessary can be got from well by means of bucket.
To be fair It should be noted that the well much more advances well on water return and has higher water quality as its water-bearing stratum is reliably protected from various impurity. However, the choice of source, certainly, remains for the plot owner.
Basic elements of system
- Pump. The scheme of system includes several elements. Some of the main can consider the pump. In well one of two versions of the equipment is installed:
1. Superficial pump. During operating time is from the pumped-over water at a distance. Some models are fixed on special float which is directly on well surface. It is not intended for fluid supply from big depths.
2. Submersible pump. Entirely or partially plunges into pumped liquid. Can work at big depths. For bigger reliability of design all electronics and wiring are reliably isolated, the body is made of strong polymeric materials or stainless steel. Respectively, the cost of the equipment is higher.
If the pump does not cope with water supply from deep water, it is possible to install in addition the ejector, the device increasing liquid pressure on entrance.
Choosing pump type, it is necessary to consider that the main advantage of submersible systems the possibility of their use in wells up to 40-50 m in depth is considered. At the same time the equipment does not rustle at all as is in water, and does not demand difficult mounting. However service of submersible devices is seriously complicated. They need to be taken out periodically from well for cleaning and adjustment of the support bearing which quickly enough wears out. Because of tightness of the body of devices it is quite difficult to disassemble them and afterwards to collect again.
Superficial pumps are easy in mounting, dismantling and service. The owner needs to check periodically functionality of consolidation and if it is the self-inhausting model, to clean the ejector. However such devices have certain restrictions on depth of well in which they work. For example, the self-inhausting systems can pump water approximately on 30-50 m in height, but they are not capable inhaust liquid from ten-meter depth. If suction height from 8 and up to 40 m, then is used the self-inhausting device with the portable ejector. If it is even more depth, use of the submersible pump unambiguously is required.
- Hydroaccumulator. The expansion membrane tank or the hydroaccumulator is used for maintenance and smooth change of pressure in water feed system. Besides it performs also additional functions:
1. protects design from hydroblow;
2. provides water supply;
3. limits number of short-term repeated turning on of the pump.
The volume of the device is calculated proceeding from water consumption volume. On the Internet it is possible to meet many difficult schemes of calculation of volume of the hydroaccumulator. But, as devices are issued in standard standard sizes which quantity is rather limited, difficult calculations are senseless. It is simpler to choose device volume proceeding from the number of consumers and number and type of the water consuming devices.
On sale it is possible to meet hydroaccumulators of two types: balloon and membrane. In the first there is rubber cylinder to which water gets, and in the second – plastic partition. The principle of their functioning is absolutely identical, in both cases the compressed air influencing elastic rubber becomes active ingredient.
More long-lasting is the balloon system. In such hydroaccumulator water interacts only with cylinder material. Besides, producers often do this element removable that allows to replace it without any problem, without dismantling at the same time all design. However, upon purchase it is necessary to specify surely the cost of replaceable element as some producers estimate it almost at half of the price of the hydroaccumulator. Membrane devices are less practical as water contacts to metal walls of vessel that creates corrosion threat.
- Pressure switch. Manages processes of increase and pressure reduction in system. Switches-off the pump at achievement of the maximum indicator of pressure and includes it again when size becomes minimum. High-quality operation of the device and the automated process of water supply are impossible without availability of the hydroaccumulator as the instant changes in system pressure connected with opening of the crane, connection or shutdown of new consumers, etc. cause operation of the device. It leads to overheating and breakdown of the engine, instability of water supply and failure of the relay.
- Spill valve. The feed system of water is surely equipped with the spill valve which is used in the course of preservation of construction. It has to be installed in the lowermost point of design, most often right after the pump. If the well superficial, is no more than eight meters, also is near housing, it is possible to do without spill valve, having installed other device. The check valve, right in front of the building – bypass system on which the crane is installed is indoors mounted. It is worth opening the crane and vacuum created by check valve resolves, and water merges from system.
Besides pipes will be necessary for arrangement of water supply system. Specialists recommend to use polypropylene parts, they differ in reliability, durability, simplicity of mounting, environmental friendliness and quite affordable price. If height of water in well low, it is worth thinking of mounting of the relay of the dry course which will protect the pump from work empty. Also perhaps the water-heating cable preventing freezing of the pipeline in cold season is required.
Arrangement of well
Practice shows that the most widespread option of arrangement of water intaking well is the design from concrete rings. To construct such construction it is necessary to work step by step. In the beginning we dig hole for well. For this purpose in the place intended for arrangement of design we plan diameter of future ditch. It has to be more than diameter of the prepared rings on less than on 20 cm, so will mount more conveniently construction. It is possible to dig hole in two ways:
- Entirely. This way assumes excavation of hole of the necessary depth with the subsequent installation in it concrete structure.
- With gradual lowering of rings which are mounted in parallel with excavation of ditch.
If the first method is used, then we lower rings on hole bottom only after pumping of water with sand. The design reliably is established, we put on two or three special brackets in the form of letter “H” intended for fastening of the following ring it. Thus the necessary quantity of elements is mounted so that upper acted over ground level on 20-30 cm. Places of joints are carefully coated with liquid waterproofing or cement sandy solution.
The second method assumes that as soon as the hole is dug out on depth equal to the incomplete height of ring so that it rose a little above the ground, diameter of ditch changes. Now it has to be equal to the inside diameter of design. Work is continued until depth is not equal to ring height. After that the ring is established on the place and from under it soil is gradually taken out.
After the design a little plunges into soil, on it establish dog irons. Then works are continued, taking out soil from under the first ring and submerging all system in hole. The design can be installed both with the specialized elevator, and without it. In this case rings are driven to hole manually and turn over. Earthwork operations comes to an end after emergence of the intensive water current sent to hole.
Regardless of well mounting mode in it the opening for pipe which will be used for water supply is surely carried out. Being guided by soil freezing level, it is done either in the second, or in the ring third from above. The diameter of bore has to be more, than at pipe. So she can be brought in well and not to damage. Afterwards the gap in design is closed up by solution or waterproofing.
To take out soil from ditch it was simpler, construct the special device. It is tripod which is established over hole. Between two of her “legs” the shaft with pulley on which the strong rope or rope of the necessary length is fixed is fixed. Soil keeps within bucket and the person standing on surface rotates shaft and lifts it. During the work with the device it is necessary to observe safety measures. Especially careful the person should be in hole. He has to watch always the rising bucket that in case of its falling to manage to close the head.
The last stage of mounting of well – arrangement of the ground filter. It is necessary to dig hole until water does not begin to come to ditch intensively. After that it is necessary to pump out the arrived water together with sand and to check from what number of water-bearing veins there is its receipt. Pumping is carried out not completely but only till the moment when it is possible to distinguish veins at the bottom. It is the best of all that them was not less than three. Otherwise in the future it is possible to face water shortage. If it is less water-bearing veins, it will be reasonable to go deep on 30-50 cm.
Having found not less than three veins which pump water in well in enough, works this day stop. Next day pump out all washed sand and the arrived water, preparing bottom for laying of the filter. The first layer about 20 cm wide stones which will detain sand bulk give all the best. Atop the layer of 20 cm fills small crushed stone or gravel for deeper water treatment. Between drainage courses it is necessary to lay laying from geotextiles which will detain up to 90% of sand, in addition purifying water.
After arrangement of the filter it is necessary to check whether water more slowly, if it so began to arrive, then drainage courses need to be reduced. We fill up free space between concrete rings and walls of hole with crushed stone or mix of sand and gravel. To protect construction from leakage of rainfall near rings on circle the small trench from 0.5 to 1 m wide and half-meter depth is dug out. It is filled up with clay, forming the so-called “clay lock”.
The most important sector of works – joining of the pipeline with wall of concrete ring. For the best sealing the short tube section with thread on both ends is used sgon. Put on laying them, then by means of flanges drive into the corner. For internal and outside waterproofing it is necessary to use only structures, safe for the person. Pipe driving depth in well has to be a little below than the middle of level of liquid in well, but not less than 30 cm from bottom, otherwise the pump will begin to suck in sand. Before mounting works of lowering pipe water from well is extorted. The pipe with knee connects to the removing pipe. Specialists recommend to install instead of knee the faucet at an angle 90 ° that will allow to block if necessary water even before receipt it to the house.
Winter option of water supply system
The water supply system from well can be summer or winter, and the second option assumes all-weather option which can be used all the year round. That water in the pipeline did not freeze and did not break off pipe, it is necessary to stack them lower than the level of freezing of soil. It is rather labor-consuming as it is necessary to dig trenches of 1.5 m in depth and more. It is possible to lay the pipeline at smaller depth, but then it will need to be warmed.
One of options of warming of water supply system is equipped as follows. Trenches of 60 cm in depth are dug out, pipes keep within them. Atop the layer of 30 cm fills up heater. It can be polyfoam crumb, slag or haydite. Further soil keeps within. One more option – mounting on the pipeline of heating cable, very effective, but at the same time quite expensive device.
As it is clear from the name, the design is intended for use only in warm season therefore protection against cold is not provided. The construction can be stationary or folding. In the first case the pipeline keeps within the earth on small depth, water plugs are brought to surface. Very conveniently for the fact that water can be brought practically in any corner of the site, at the same time labor costs will be small.
The folding design is simpler in mounting. It is established in warm season, and for the winter is dismantled and cleans up on storage. The system represents the hoses or pipes laid on surface in the necessary directions. Choosing materials for folding construction it is the best of all to stop on the strong and whenever possible reinforced parts. For additional reliability of design establish special coupling pieces from strong plastic or galvanized steel.
Both options of construction are mounted with the obligatory device of system of the preservation which is responsible for water drain from the pipeline. All pipes keep within with bias to the lowest point of design in which the spill valve is located. The summer stationary water supply system is preserved before the onset of cold weather. If not to make it, the frozen water will break off pipes. From all-weather system with the advent of low temperatures water merges every time before break in use of water supply system. So the construction will easier keep the working capacity.
Water which is laid on from well – the excellent decision for providing the house and the site with water even in the absence of the centralized communications brought to it. Such system differs in efficiency, practicality and relative low cost. The most important – it can quite be equipped independently. Not important, the winter or summer option of construction will be established, competent arrangement of system guarantees uninterrupted supply of clear water.