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Freezing of water pipes in the winter — real crash for single housing construction. Not only that water supply of all dwelling is broken that does not meet expectations of comfortable living conditions at all, so still it will be required to make serious efforts, both physical, and financial, for system recovery.
It is simpler to prevent problem of freezing of water in pipes, than to eliminate. Not to allow emergence of emergency situation, it is necessary just to provide timely warming of water supply system which will not demand efforts of global scale.
Usually the site of water supply passing on the street is conducted on trench bottom. If its depth is insufficient, then in the winter, turned into ice, water with ease breaks off pipes. The same effects can occur in not heated rooms where freezing probability is high. It is possible not to allow similar situations if qualitatively to warm potentially dangerous in terms of freezing, sites of water supply system. The main thing, is correct to choose way of warming and the materials which are most suitable for these purposes.
Main problem places of water supply
The individual water supply system has two vulnerable points: on entrance of head pipe to the house and at its exit from well or the well. If works on carrying out water supply system are on planning stages, that is every chance to prevent possible mistakes. Here it is important to consider that depth of trench has to exceed soil frost depth, i.e. the pipe going from well is laid on 1.7-1.8 meters from earth surface. At the same time it has to be wrapped up with heater layer, and as cover it is possible to use sewage pipe of 100-110 mm in the diameter. In the last the water pipe with heater is also located.
At detection of any miscalculation in already laid on water, it is necessary to be engaged in its correction. If burying of the highway is not enough, then it is better to try to lower pipe below. When it does not work well, is required to make it additional warming. While the pipe is at the necessary depth, but there is no heater, it is possible to use the next way. Having cut longwise piece of sewage pipe in which couple of openings is in advance made, it is placed on the warmed site of water supply system. Then through openings the space is filled with polyurethane foam. Such way of solving the problem does not give 100% of guarantee, but can significantly improve situation. It is worth noticing that water supply system T-joints are most subject to freezing.
What properties heater has to have
Uninterrupted water supply, regardless of season, in many respects depends on right choice of heater. Successfully to resist to influence of adverse factors (frost, rainfall), quality and reliable material has to conform to the following operational specifications:
- low water absorption: the material which is passing, and, moreover, absorbing moisture cannot provide protection of pipes against freezing;
- simplicity of mounting;
- low heat conductivity;
- affordable price;
- high coefficient of heatsaving.
Than and how to warm water supply system pipes
By means of modern materials and technologies quite really independently to protect pipes from freezing. Let’s consider the most widespread and convenient heaters for water pipes.
- Mineral wool. Use of this material provides additional protection most of which often is made of roofing material. Heater is covered with in advance cut strips of roofing material or foil, and fixed by plastic couplers, wire or twine. The option of use of mineral wool on the foiled basis protecting heater from moistening, and, so from loss of heat-insulating properties is most convenient. Also mineral wool with one-sided covering kraft paper can be used. Such material will be a little more expensive, but also the quality of heat insulation will be much higher.
- Glass wool. The rolled heater meeting all listed above requirements. The convenient form allows to apply it to heat insulation of fitting, withdrawal of pipes, cranes. Plus to everything — low cost. Can have the foiled covering.
- Polyurethane foam. It is used in the form of the heater consisting of two semi-cylinders. This shell is provided by semi-cylinders of meter length which can have the different thickness and diameter. Unlike mineral-cotton heat insulators, the close-meshed structure of polyurethane foam practically excludes water absorption. Simple mounting and also admissibility of reuse of such shell favourably distinguish this heater.
- The heat-insulating basalt shells consisting of basalt microcrystallic fiber represent the cylinders having different parameters. When warming knees of water supply system apply or ready elements, or cut off part of cylinder of the necessary size. Happens to covering from aluminum foil or without it. The insulation course from 30 to 100 mm thick, inside diameter is 18-525 mm, length — 1 meter.
- Connector casing shell from polyfoam — one more widespread, easy and effective way of heat insulation of water pipes. Material the waterproof, having low heat conductivity, but at the same time quite brittle. Taking into account that pipes after laying usually are not exposed to mechanical influences, such heater can serve rather long time.
- Frothed polyethylene is often used for isolation of pipes, in particular in living conditions. Is issued in the form of plates, pipes and rolls. Material is put on yet not laid communications as sleeve that does not present any difficulties. If pipes are already established, then heater needs to be cut lengthways on seam preparation, then stick seam by means of adhesive tape. Heat insulation joints among themselves need also to be stuck together. For large diameter pipes use rolled option of frothed polyethylene. It is just reeled up on pipe, joints also glue with adhesive tape. Additional protection after mounting to it heat is not required to the insulator. Material is steady against moisture, maintains big temperature range, and low heat conductivity promotes significant reduction of costs of energy for heating.
Except the listed materials, can be applied to isolation of pipes: heat-insulating paint, etc.
As works on warming are carried out
As we see, heat insulation is generally made for pipes either in the form of “shell”, or in the form of cylinder. Laying new water supply system, use the last, and warming existing, apply shells. Performance of this type of works does not demand any special skills. On pipes cylinders are dressed just before mounting. When using their half in turn put on pipe, without forgetting to displace parts relatively each other on 10-15 cm. At the same time heater is “taken” adhesive tape.
Withdrawal of pipes warms the elements which are specially picked up or cut from shell. Full fixing of material on pipe is carried out by way of pasting and by means of fixing collars. Also, after pasting use imposing method on shells of fiber glass fabric or fibreglass with overlap (from outer side), with imposing of glue structure.
Protection of water supply system against freezing by means of heater cable
Heat insulation of pipes of water supply by means of heater cable — one more effective way to prevent freezing of water in system. It is so possible to warm both metal, and plastic pipes. For the last it is important to choose the working temperature of cable competently. Besides the plastic pipe has to be previously enveloped by aluminum foil. It allows to distribute heat more evenly.
When using electric heater cable depth of laying of pipes and frost depth of soil are not crucial. Will be trenches half-meter depth enough. It can be laid along pipe in a straight line or to carry out inside, and it is possible to twist with spiral outside.
Today there is possibility of acquisition of ready sets of water pipes with the established heater cable or without it, but with availability on the pipes cable channels intended for laying of the cable bought separately. The self-regulating heating cable which is system basis depending on temperature fluctuations, can change running power. Thus, sites where temperature is lower, are warmed better. The built-in thermostat starts system at temperature less than +3 °C and disconnects when heating to +13 °C. The possibility of overheating at the same time is excluded since continuous temperature of surface of cable is maintained. To pipe the cable fastens any heat-resistant tape.
This type of warming of water supply system carries out usually on the site from water intake source before input in the dwelling in soil, on the input and, as a rule, does not leave not heated rooms without heating.
Minuses of this way can be considered additional expenditure for the electric power and absolute dependence on possible interruptions in power supply that not rarity in rural zone. To be anxious there is nothing to the one who is provided with independent energy source. In this case problems do not arise.
Here not all ways of warming of water pipes are stated. But the fact that water supply system heat insulation in country house — action necessary is obvious. Better to save pipes from freezing quality materials, here you should not save. In the winter and its subsequent repair will be of pipe burst far more expensive. What earlier the task will be solved by, that it will cost to the house owner cheaper.