Table of Contents
To lose doubtful “pleasure” to live in the house, fully impregnated dampness, it is possible only qualitatively having executed waterproofing of roof, walls, underground part of the base and socle of the building. Special attention should be paid to the last. Being located over ground level, the socle is influenced by all “delights” of adverse weather conditions. It both winter snow drifts, and spring melt waters, and autumn incessant rains.
Why the socle waterproofing is necessary
The functional and beautiful house in which necessary protection against the destroying environmental activities is not provided loses all the advantages. It is not enough joy that accommodation in the similar building will turn into series of the urgent repairs demanding everything new financial injections. Therefore, in this case, durability of socle and its ability to resist to penetration of soil moisture and atmospheric precipitation is regarded as of paramount importance.
Being peculiar interlink between the base and elevated structure of the house, the socle has to transfer seasonal processes of freezing defrosting well. So, the essential danger is constituted by soaking of this part of the building, the events at moisture penetration from soil on socle material capillaries. When freezing particle of water, the filling capillaries, increase in volume and break off the last. Repeating from year to year, this process is capable to break integrity of socle in quite short terms and to reduce it to ruins.
Stability of the building very strongly depends on durability of socle which should maintain the weight of facade walls, to assume all negative effects of whims of the nature leading to destruction.
Proceeding from the above, becomes clear that the waterproofing is necessary, and you should not put it away for later. It is better to perform these works at stage of construction of the house. Besides the internal waterproofing is considered less effective.
Close attention is required by the choice of protective equipment which will fully be able to resist to dangerous influence of moisture.
Ways of the device of waterproofing
To prevent receipt of capillary water from soil and soaking of socle outside apply vertical and horizontal waterproofings. The first consists in drawing on wall vertical surface of socle of waterproofing covering. Different options of hydroprotection are applied. The second — settles in the way of flooring of water-proof rolled insulating material. Competent application of these two types of waterproofing provides extremely high level of moisture resistance of socle.
It is possible to stop process of destruction of socle capillary water, having carried out waterproofing two layers of roofing felt or roofing material. The typical mistake is quite often made: insulation layer have just before the laying of walls, i.e. cut water inflow in walls, and the socle at the same time stays in wet state and collapses, and in high gear.
It is better not to save on material and to arrive as follows: one site for waterproofing works will pass at the height of 200 mm from blind area level (for protection against soil moisture), and the second — on top of the socle where the waterproofing will interfere with soaking of walls. Influence of atmospheric precipitation in the form of rain and snow — the phenomenon periodic, it does not cause so much damage, how many constant intake of moisture from the earth. Proceeding from it, we draw conclusion that the waterproofing on socle is not strictly obligatory, but nevertheless it is desirable.
It is possible to eliminate possibility of passing of moisture in the first floor by means of drainage and the subsequent device of blind area which is created on building perimeter. The bias, in the party opposite to the house, has to make 2-3 °, and width within 70-80 cm. It is ideal if the blind area is wider than eaves on 20 cm. In this case it is possible to avoid situation when the water which is flowing down from roof begins to wash away soil and to stand directly under house walls. Blind area width on collapsible soil (1 m) has to be bigger, and the bias is not less than 5 degrees. Asphalt, cement slurry, paving slabs can serve as material.
Careful sealing of joint of socle with blind area is important, on this site the crack quite often appears. Shrinkage of blind area because of soil ramming is the reason of its education.
Vertical isolation of socle
The socle waterproofing which is carried out at construction stage — option more rational, than performance of work in already operated house when there is set of difficulties and problems.
The socle from outer end of the building needs obligatory protection. Height of layer of waterproofing can reach the level of the first floor. Apply different methods of creation of impervious layer. Let’s list the main options of waterproofing:
The excellent solution of vertical hydroprotection of socle it is possible to call the general system of isolation of outside part of the base and the socle. Use of liquid rubber or bituminous and polymeric emulsion will be optimal variant here.
Liquid rubber without problems is applied on socle surface. Besides the excellent adhesion with any material is inherent in it that does possible receiving monolithic jointless watertight coating on all wall height of the base and socle. Material is capable to get into the smallest cracks and time of concrete, brick, corking them. Such covering is elastic, is not torn even if in the base cracks are formed.
For putting liquid rubber on big surface areas the special equipment is used, i.e. the option of the evaporated waterproofing is applied. At the small volumes of work this process is performed manually. Isolation by liquid rubber is especially effective for socle from concrete and brick.
The way of numerous plastering of walls of socle is extended by bitumen. But efficient such waterproofing will be only if the building is built on dry soil, and only within 3-3.5 years. Life cycle of material is limited and shortly the put layer will begin to become covered by cracks. It is the most economical option, but also the most short-lived. It can be applied as to outside, and internal isolation.
If not to regard as of paramount importance questions of economy, then great option will be use of the innovation material for plastering — liquid glass which does not lose the properties over time as it happens, for example, to bituminous structures. Use of this material in situation when the base of the building is located on wet soil is especially reasonable.
Possible defects of the put coating isolation: swellings, spallings and shrinkage cracks, can be revealed at survey of surface. Having found such site, the covering in the place of defect should be cut down, smoothed out and put new solution mix.
The number of the materials applied in hydroprotection of a such type includes sheet and rolled materials or the different built-up roofing materials of new generation on bituminous basis. Walls of socle can be isolated with use of rolled roofing material. Such type of moisture protection is slightly more expensive than bituminous mastic, but at the same time and is more reliable. The surface of socle demands preliminary preparation. Roofing material is put on dry and plain surface on which at first apply layer of hot bituminous mastic. Further on it paste at least two layers of roofing material, without forgetting about overlap in 15-20 cm.
It is necessary to remember that during the work with hot mixes it is necessary to observe required temperature condition. If there was bitumen overheating, then its viscosity goes down that can cause emergence of defects of covering (gaps, cracks, swellings).
Backing isolation can consist of water-proof multilayer membranes. They are put very simply. It is necessary to heat blowpipe material, to drive densely into the corner socle and to smooth with the roller. Membranes perfectly resist to humidity and emergence of cracks.
Except bitumen overheating, low-quality surface preparation can be the cause of defects. If on it there are hillocks, sinks, or it is not cleaned and not dried up. At identification of gaps and cracks, the damaged site is cleared away, apply mastic and paste strip of rolled material (width not less than 10 cm). The found swelling should be cut cross-wise, to remove moisture, to unbend edges of section and to paste again mastic. From above the repaired place is stuck with patch, use the same rolled material. Punctures, gaps are closed up by pads which are pasted on outlines of the damaged place.
It is possible to carry the small cost and simplicity of the process which does not demand special skills to pluses of this method. Bad point — short life cycle. This type of protection allows to resist successfully to erosion, dyeing of walls of socle, emergence of small cracks. Socle and basements apply from 2 to 6 layers of liquid structures on surface of walls. But before surface preparation has to be obligatory stage: alignment, cleaning, drying (it is possible with use of fan heater). It is necessary to close up cracks, sinks, seams sealant, without having forgotten to degrease solvent.
On sites of connection of blocks and on corners application of armoring lattices and fabrics is recommended. Having completed preparatory stage, the surface should be grounded bituminous or other mastic. Only after performance of all listed works it is possible to pass to drawing the first waterproofing course.
As the tool for creation of moisture protecting cover use the roller, brush or the sprayer. Apply polymeric, bituminous, cement and polymeric and bituminous and polymeric painting coatings to waterproofing of this type.
In the form of drips, swellings, cracks, uneven thickness of layer results negligence at surface preparation in defects, in particular, to its cleaning. Or isolation was applied on wet basis, during rain. The site with defect should be cleaned and again to put covering with the chosen material.
Elimination of leak of socle
If the socle room was waterlogged, at first it is necessary to find places of leakages. It is easy to reveal them on the wall saltpetres having whitish color since they appear where moisture washes away cementing agents and salts from concrete.
It is possible to eliminate small leak, having used special dry mixes which are recommended for application in the conditions of high humidity. Such solutions grab quickly and also quickly gain durability.
The getting waterproofing which is capable to provide the high level of water tightness is considered the most reliable way. This material is most convenient for independent performance of work on hydroprotection. Getting into structure of concrete, the structure crystallizes there, closing time, thereby without leaving cavities for moisture passing.
There are different types of the getting waterproofing:
- The mix applied with the palette. It is intended for hydroprotection of old concrete surfaces. About 2 mm form layer.
- Structures for repair and elimination of considerable leakages. Use at elimination of defects and damages of concrete.
- Water solution — is applied mostly on new designs. It is applied on the undamaged concrete by means of spraying or brush.
- Waterproofing of seams. Represents the dense mix suitable for repair and giving of water tightness to seams. Apply in combination with liquid solution.
The following technology using the getting waterproofing perfectly is suitable for elimination of leaks. The place of failure (seam or crack) is a little expanded and deepened, giving to hollow type of the cone extending inside.
Make pasty dense mixture, such that there was opportunity to mold stopper in dredging form in concrete surface. Here it is important to perform all works very quickly: time for mixing should not take more than 2 minutes, repair of opening or crack — 3 min.
Then it is necessary to place stub in gully and to press strong hands or something from make-shifts for couple of minutes. This time is enough that solution has grabbed and active process of crystallization has begun.
The site of surface subjected to repair needs to be leveled, using solution for joints and seams. Further processing by means of liquid solution for the getting isolation follows.
At repair of socle and socle rooms from concrete, natural stone and brick the injection getting isolation can be applied. Quite often protective layer is created in the coating way forming reliable watertight coating. At such option as insulators use different emulsions and mastics on the basis of bitumen, or polymeric solutions.
Working with all these materials, it is necessary to avoid hit of pastes and solutions on skin. You should not neglect protective equipment, it is necessary to use strong rubber gloves and points.
The outer end of socle has to be surely protected from winter accumulations of snow on blind area or the rain splashes which are flying away from it ricochet. Therefore, in addition to waterproofing, it is necessary to execute facing of socle using moisture resistant and frost-resistant finishing materials.
Choosing specific type of hydroprotection, consider the whole complex of factors among which characteristics of underground waters, soils, design features of socle, its finishing, base material, availability of elements of protection against moisture (drainage, blind area, etc.), weather conditions are considered as the most significant. Usually house owners prefer to combine several types of waterproofing. So, the getting isolation is quite often integrated with surface that considerably enhances its efficiency.
The quality of the chosen facing and technology correct carrying out waterproofing works will become guarantee of durability and reliability of the built dwelling.