Table of Contents
Finishing of socle, in addition to performance of function of decorative registration, is capable to emphasize architecture of the building favourably. But nevertheless it not its main destination. Being peculiar intermediate link between house footing and its walls, the socle assumes all weight of negative atmospheric actions, serves as barrier to penetration of cold and moisture.
What has to be facing
Being the upper part of the base located over ground level, this zone is influenced by all “delights” of temperature drops between airspace and the soil. Quite often influence of underground and flood waters is added to it. That is why it is so important that the strong, reliable materials possessing large-scale of resilience to moisture, freezing, resistance to sharp temperature drops were applied to finishing of socle. You should not forget also that the socle is exposed to pressure from soil and assumes facade weight.
The facing of socle which is correctly carried out using appropriate materials, promotes normal microclimate indoors and prolongs building life cycle. If in the house arrangement of subfloor is supposed, then high heat-insulating qualities have to be inherent in materials for finishing of socle or facing has to fasten on heater. At non-compliance with these conditions of constant heat leakage not to avoid.
As for the choice of color combinations, it must be kept in mind that the shade of socle zone has to be more dark, than walls, and to be in harmony with color of roof. Being engaged in finishing work, it is necessary to adhere to bases of compatibility of close or contrast colors.
While walls will be from bar, log or plastered, smooth, for facing of socle it is better to choose artificial or natural stone. It visually makes heavier the building.
More often protective finishing of socle is made after completion of construction of the house. It not absolutely right decision. It is more correct to do this work right after construction of the basis. At this stage the waterproofing, plastering by special structure and finishing is carried out.
Before beginning facing of socle, it is necessary to put drainage pillow on perimeter of the building. For performance of task along the base take out soil on depth about 20 cm and width of 50 cm. In the turned-out groove fill gravel, it is possible crushed stone. It is abundant spill water, and, in 1-2 h well stamped. The created drainage pillow has to be located flush with soil. Afterwards on it arrange slopes.
Using cement and limy structure, the socle is plastered. Durability connection is given by means of armoring lattice. Inclusion in composition of plaster of the plasticizer which, in addition to the main qualities, has waterproofing properties is recommended. The made mixture dolzht to be quite dense therefore amount of the added water insignificant. Well sand with large elimination or river approaches.
You should not ignore the given councils since solution of plaster of weak concentration, most likely, will exfoliate. Having finished preparatory stage, start decorative finishing of socle.
Materials for socle facing
Choosing material for finishing of socle, it is necessary to focus attention to its decorative effects and functionality. Priority, of course, behind the finishing differing in high-strength characteristics and the water absorption close to zero. Perfectly natural materials are suitable for this purpose. In general, there are many ways of socle finishing. Traditionally apply:
- different plasters,
- artificial stone,
- brick tile,
- natural stone (coarse pebbles, dolomite, granite, sandstone, limestone, marble),
- paints and varnishes.
Technology of finishing of socle natural stone
Perhaps, the most optimal variant. Exclusive durability of natural stone, waterproofing properties and external attractiveness which are possessed by this material allow to receive beautiful and thorough finishing. Most of all such facing will be suitable for socle from mass concrete or concrete slabs.
Let’s consider way of facing of socle from concrete blocks so-called cobble-stone, stone which it is possible to see along roadsides of roads, on fields or at coast of the rivers.
Stones choose with flat surface. Copies from 2-3 cm thick, and not exceeding 10 cm approach. If stones of the necessary size are not enough, they can be pinned independently. It is easy to make it, having struck 2-3 blows with sledge hammer edge to cobble-stone. Usually split parts have flat surface.
If the house the brick, then first row of blockwork does not support socle more, than on 12 cm (length of half of brick). From here and the extreme thickness of finishing material — 10 cm. It is important that facing did not support wall borders.
Having prepared stone and having built drainage pillow, make cement slurry. Proportions of cement and sand — 1:3 respectively. Preference should be given to bank sand of average granularity. Begin to spread the lower row. If work is carried out to dry weather, the stone and socle need to be moistened with water. Solution of cement is outlined on socle by means of trowel, covering the area proportional to stone size. Using the bricklayer’s hammer, we drive in stone into the applied solution with flat surface outside. The made percussion has to be sharp and frequent, but not strong. At implementation of these actions it is necessary to try to obtain parallelism of outer surface of finishing material and the plane of socle. The bottom edge of stone has to lean on drainage pillow. Nearby the following stone is fixed by the same way. So the first row along all socle keeps within.
The largest stones it is possible to have on corners, placing small and average in the middle. Sometimes add a little quartz sand or pounded glass why the revetted surface sparkles in the sun to solution.
At dry warm weather on “drying” of solution it will be required about day. Then spread the second row, the third. Having executed 2-3 rows, it is necessary to fill with solution the created emptiness. It is necessary to do it with accuracy, trying not to allow hits of solution on the front plane of stone. If it was not succeeded to avoid it, then to structure allow to harden a little then move away it, having used metal brush and dry-brush. Water is not applied to correction of situation.
After fixing of the next row carry out pointing, i.e. level solution between stones, using metal narrow lacing. Facing will be more volume if seams in relation to surface of stone become approximately one centimeter deeper.
It is important that all elements of facing were located in one plane therefore under the stones having thickness less than 10 cm addition of bigger amount of solution is required. During summer time it is necessary to moisten with water already revetted surface several times during the day.
Having completed the work with upper row, start construction of slopes. The cement slurry keeps within on drainage pillow, and stones “are implemented” into it also, as when finishing socle. Careful adjustment of elements of finishing to each other is necessary. At the same time it is important to provide inclination of the received surface from socle in 5-10 degrees for good drain of water. All intervals between stones shall be densely filled with cement slurry.
For receiving almost eternal socle steady against any influences, different types of natural stone can be applied: sandstone, onyx, dolomite, marble, granite, etc. Facing by natural stone looks presentably and expensively, besides does not demand leaving that is powerful plus.
Facing of socle siding
In comparison with way which is considered above, finishing of socle siding — option faster and easy. The made front panels can imitate various natural materials. The siding which looks how the natural stone differing in form and the sizes is issued; bricklaying, and, different flowers, or it can be imitation of different types of front tile. It allows to receive such exterior of socle of the house which does not concede in anything to finishing by natural materials at minimum of expenses.
For socle facing differ from normal siding of the panel in bigger thickness (up to 23 mm). In production polypropylene in connection with the different additives increasing strength qualities and plasticity of products is used. The following characteristics are inherent to material:
- high moisture resistance;
- fire resistance;
- resistance to rotting and corrosion;
- resistance to influence of sunshine and chemicals;
- small weight and easy mounting;
- resistance to mechanical influences, low and high temperatures;
- when mounting the device of additional heat insulation is possible.
Mounting of socle siding is quite simple. Thanks to the developed system of fastening, by means of clips and thorns material is easily mounted on any surfaces. For additional fixing use self-tapping screws. Such type of siding can be established on furring from metalprofile if the surface does not differ in flatness. If the surface of socle has no defects and roughnesses, then facing is made without furring.
In use, under the influence of temperature fluctuations, panels can extend and contract. Considering this fact, during the work with socle siding it is necessary to provide them opportunity to move a little. Besides it promotes removal of condensate. Therefore, fixing panels, nails have on the center of nail openings. At the same time it is necessary to leave distance between siding and nail head.
For registration of corners of the building the siding bent under required corner is used. To receive the necessary configuration part, it is necessary to heat material from the unpainted party to temperature about 120 °C. It is important to remember that the bend has to recede on 10-20 mm from the line of corner of the house.
When mounting on furring quite often at the same time carry out also heat insulation, having mineral heater in space between metal framework and socle.
Decorative finishing of socle zone
The purpose of decorative finishing of socle consists in upclassing of exterior of upper part of the base. Modern technologies of putting plasters allow to create relief and impressive surfaces. Over such finishing material the socle usually becomes covered by special masonry paints. In addition there are other ways of dressing.
Using rasp, it is possible to gain effect of laying, brick or stone if to paint socle, and then to designate the turned-out seams in other color. Plastering, and relief including, will help to disguise any defects of socle. This type of finishing passes air that gives the chance to blocks (laying) to breathe, and at the same time performs protective functions, protecting design from negative impact of moisture and temperature differences. Using such type of finishing, it must be kept in mind that from time to time tincturing and plastering surfaces will be required. Especially it concerns sites near blind area. Cycles of defrosting freezing have an effect and constant accumulation of moisture leads to cracking and fall of plaster layer.
Taking into account that the socle usually is arranged from mineral materials — the brick and concrete porous on the structure and absorbing moisture, special requirements are imposed to the applied decorative paint coats. They have to be weatherproof, not be afraid of any whims of the environment. Vapor permeability — one more important criterion among many. To avoid destruction, the socle has to “breathe”, i.e. the surface covered with the film formed when coloring should not pass moisture outside. At the same time, it should not block moisture evaporation from within. Masonry acrylic paints serve as reliable protection of design against moisture, being good waterproofing. Such finishing has one more essential advantage — almost unlimited color gamma.
Material selection is huge. Being very different in the utilization properties, they allow to create that decor of the house which answers your preferences and design intentions without any problem. It is only worth adding that rash economy on finishing of socle can involve still big costs. It is better to make once qualitatively and reliably, than, having pursued cheap materials, regularly, from season during season, to be engaged in repair.