Table of Contents
The well which is pure uninterrupted source or even basis of autonomous water supply system can be considered necessary accessory of any country or seasonal dacha. The owner of construction has to know that for its normal functioning a little it is only competent to design and equip design. It is necessary also is correct behind it to look after.
Cleaning time has come?
At least time in two-three years if there was no emergency need, the well should be cleaned. This process is combined most often with repair. However, can happen so that urgent cleaning of construction is required. Not to miss the moment when water in well from clean turns into dangerous, it is necessary to know the signs indicating excessive pollution of construction:
- Considerable rise in level of bottom. Rather widespread phenomenon if the well is constructed on quicksands. It can be provoked by excessive pumping of water which activates sand aggradation process.
- Muddy water. Can appear owing to depressurization of seams and during insufficiently effective operation of the benthonic filter.
- Unpleasant smack and smell of water. Hit of sewer drains in well can become the reason.
- Emergence of clay deposits on design walls because of penetration in construction of surface water.
- Stagnant water which it becomes owing to rare use of well.
- Emergence on surface of foreign objects. It can be the small animals who have fallen in water, plants or different garbage.
- Reduction of amount of water in construction.
If it is available signs of pollution, it is not necessary to delay with cleaning of well. Especially as it is possible to conduct works independently.
We clean well “manually”
Works are carried out step by step:
- We begin with dismantling of lodge over well if it is, or well cover. It is necessary to provide the most free access to the mine of well.
- We pump out water. For this purpose it is possible to use the pump, and it is possible and to work as buckets “in the old manner”. This operation should be executed several times. The first – before works, the subsequent – during cleaning and last time – on the end of action.
- We go down in well. It is necessary to do it rather carefully. Happens that gas at the bottom accumulates. Before beginning descent, it is worth lowering accurately to the mine bucket in which there is the lit candle. If it does not go out after it appears below, the gas contamination is absent and it is possible to start works quietly. The gases which have accumulated about bottom need to try to be removed. It is possible to try the following “antiquated way” way. Take blanket, display it on well mouth, and begin to clap intensively material, creating air flow in well. After airing repeat the test with candle and go down only after the gas contamination is completely liquidated. There is one more “antiquated” method of disposal of gas. The fir-tree which krone is slightly more than diameter of well is cut down. To the top the rope on which the tree falls to well becomes attached. Ten-twenty times having lowered fir-tree down and having quickly lifted up as delete with the pump gas from well.
- We clean walls from pollution. This operation requires rigid brush, with its help the surface is carefully washed from raid and pollution. Dirt is washed away by water which is pumped out from construction. To accelerate process it is possible to use the washing high-pressure apparatus.
- We carry out audit of well. Attentively we examine walls and bottom. We define the need for repair works, we plan their volume.
- If necessary we repair construction.
- We start cleaning of bottom. The shovel and bucket will be necessary for this operation. We delete silt, blockages of soil and the suspensions postponed for surfaces. Then we bring the gravel making the ground filter to the surface and carefully we wash out it in clear water.
- We return into place drainage course, if necessary we change it or we pour. The layer of largely fractional gravel has to make about 10 cm. It will reduce dregs of waters and will help to strengthen soil at the bottom.
We clean construction by means of the pump
Cleaning of well by means of the pump – rather effective method. However it is necessary to understand that construction walls in such a way will not manage to be cleaned therefore from time to time it is necessary to process them. Work requires two pumps: submersible and drainage. With their help the design which is called hydro monitor is made. To the submersible pump the pipe with nozzle is mounted. It is suspended on crossbeam on sides of well and periodically moved on construction circle. It is necessary to watch depth at which there is device, otherwise can drain in it in quicksand. The drainage pump is installed at the bottom.
The submersible pump begins to work and with force gives the water jet sent to well bottom. It washes away ground deposits, and the drainage pump pumps out so-called pulp, mix of sand, silt and other pollution with water. If in well the low level of liquid, is required to stock up at least with one barrel of water for downloading in hydro monitor. The pulp which is pumped out from well is merged in barrel where pollution settle, and water, let and muddy, it is possible to use for further works.
It is necessary to consider that the pump which is pumping out water has to have big, than giving productivity. It should pump out not only the water pumped by the device, but also the moisture arriving from under the earth. The fact that the drainage pump strongly suffers from sand is considered lack of such method of cleaning. During such work valves from rubber quickly enough wear out. However after their replacement the device will normally function.
Recommendations about repair
Most often it is possible to meet three types of wells: wooden, concrete and brick. They are built by absolutely different techniques, respectively, and repair works will significantly differ.
Repair of wood structure
Wooden wells represent the timbered felling lowered to the mine. Depending on breed of tree device life cycle varies, however anyway surface part will serve much longer than underwater. One of the most frequent problems of such constructions – rotting of one or several logs in underwater part. In this case replacement of the deteriorated wreath will be required. Operation can be performed without dismantling of design.
For convenience of carrying out repair work make special site. For this purpose take thick boards and force down from them strong support. Its sizes have to correspond to well mouth that the site could fall in construction. By means of rope the device is fixed on the supporting structure from beams established over well. To lift or lower construction use collar or do it manually.
Repair works begin with strengthening of the remained part of felling which lies above the decayed wreaths. On both sides from well we establish gantry on which we stack four short logs. About two boards lowered in felling by which ends long nails beat the undamaged wreaths are strongly attached to them from each party. Instead of boards it is possible to use strong ropes or ropes.
After the upper part of felling reliably is fixed, begins work on dredging of the damaged wreaths. It is necessary to make it very accurately not to damage design. By the sizes of the taken wreaths new parts prepare. They fall to well and are inserted into place. It is difficult to execute it as the part has to be covered from above with groove of upper wreath. The lower part of old log is carefully cut with the axe so that it was with groove at one level. The new part is hammered into design with wooden hammer and firmly got jammed.
As option it is possible to consider replacement of the decayed felling fragments with concrete elements. For this purpose use sliding form. For a start clean the site on which repair works will be carried out. Then to wall fix mesh reinforcement, mount sliding form and in the formed gap fill in cement slurry with small filler. Armagh cement after hardening is not less strong, than concrete.
Most often we understand design from the concrete rings established at each other as concrete well. Emergence of cracks on internal and outer surfaces and the shift of steel concrete rings becomes the most frequent defects of such systems. Usually results use of insufficiently quality cement at construction of well and feature of soil in which the construction is constructed in such result. Then flood spring waters supersaturate soil moisture and wash away seams between rings.
How difficult will be repair works, depends on extent of destruction of design. If surface defects are noticed at the very beginning of the development, then the cracks formed on them will need to be closed up only from within. The gap before processing is carefully taped, all pieces of concrete which are unreliably keeping on the places break off. The cleared-away defect is covered with the waterproofing mastic intended for works with concrete. It is necessary to pay attention to structure of plastering, it has to be safe for human body as it should adjoin to potable water.
If damage has more serious character, repair works should be carried out not only on inside face of well, but also on external. The procedure of seal of crack from within construction is similar to already described. For external works it is necessary to dig out trench on construction perimeter. Its depth has to correspond to depth at which there is defect. Width is chosen such that it was comfortable to work. Having reached crack, clean it from the stuck dirt and accurately close up special mastic for concrete. Over plastering the seam is processed by waterproofing structure for prevention of washing out of material. Specialists advise whenever possible to cover with such structure all outside part of well.
The most laborious repair works are carried out at the shift of the concrete rings strengthening well walls. For their installation on the former place it is necessary to dig out and dismantle the damaged site. On below the lying ring is established by additional attachment clamps which will hold upper design. Making mounting of system. Seams are carefully closed up and sealing of well is carried out. In the last turn the new blind area of construction is carried out.
We repair brick design
The main problem of such wells can be considered loss and coloring of bricks from facing and the collapse of plaster. It is rather simple to repair such defects. The remains of the crumbled brick need to be beaten out accurately from laying and on its place to put new, fixing it by cement slurry. Before putting plaster facing should be cleaned from slime and dirt with steel brush carefully. If not to make it, on this place the cavity in which water will begin to accumulate is formed.
How to deepen construction
If water in well becomes less, it needs to be deepened. If the construction has been constructed less than half a year back, it is possible to try to take out soil from under the lower rings. The soil has not managed to be compressed yet and it is quite possible to take out it. Process is extremely simple: normal shovel undermine soil and gradually take out it.
Rings precipitate down and the well goes deep. If the soil has managed to be compressed, such way will not approach.
For old wells the deepening method by means of pipe is used. For this purpose the ring of smaller diameter or pipe falls by bottom of construction. From under them soil then they fall to the necessary mark is chosen. Thus water on pipe will come to well from the water-bearing strata located is much lower. The position of joint of old and new rings is closed up by solution.
Disinfection of wells
After carrying out all works disinfection of well will be required. We begin with rubdown of walls of construction with solution of chloric lime. It can be done by means of brush or mop with the rag which is reeled up on it. To prepare solution of chloric lime, on liter of water take 10-20 g of chloric lime. It is necessary to consider that in lime only 20% of chlorine therefore it it is required five times more, than during the work with pure substance.
After processing of walls we wait when the well is filled with water. Now in it it is necessary to fill in the prepared solution of chloric lime. For it take 200 g of lime on water liter. Correctly to prepare solution, take clean ware and pour in it the necessary amount of cold water. Warm it is not recommended to take as from it chlorine very quickly disappears. Fill up lime in water and at once densely close ware cover that chlorine has not disappeared. Allow to exhaust completely to be extinguished and leave solution for upholding. The top layer of water in which there are no dregs is carefully merged in other capacity.
In well fill in ready solution and carefully mix. It is possible to make it in two ways: by means of long stick or buckets. To mix water buckets, fill bucket, then lift it to edge of construction and with force pour out. It is possible to try other way. The bucket full of water, liquids raise on 30 cm higher than the level and release. Repeatedly repeated procedure promotes good hashing.
After disinfecting completion of the procedure water from construction is completely extorted and replaced with fresh. It needs to be repeated until the chlorine smell disappears. After that surface of design it is abundant spills clear water. Now disinfection can be considered complete. However for the purpose of safety water from well some time cannot be used in the raw, it needs to be boiled.
We work, following safety rules
Cleaning of well – unsafe occupation therefore it is necessary to implement the following recommendations:
- Works are carried out only with insurance. Not less than two people have to be on surface as one can almost not pull out quickly the construction working at bottom in case of problems.
- In wells, about bottom the lack of oxygen can be felt as more than three meters in depth. Therefore it is better for people who have problems with lungs or heart not to go down there.
- Before works it is necessary to make sure surely of lack of gas contamination at construction bottom.
- The person working in well shall be in belt with the strong safety rope attached to it.
- To stand long on one place, being at the bottom of construction, does not follow: can drain in legs.
- The construction helmet and moss green boots has to become obligatory equipment during descent down.
- If the tool from above moves or the bucket rises, the person working below has to be driven into the corner and watch rise that in case of break of rope and falling of objects he has managed to evade or at least to cover the head with hands.
Not to create himself the problems connected with labor-consuming repair of well needs to carry out simple service regulations of construction. It is annual sanitary processing, survey of inside face of design of times in three years and cleaning as required, but at least once in five years. Competently carried out works – guarantee of faultless long operation of well which will please the owner with clear water.