Table of Contents
Promptly developing sphere of the construction industry constantly demands emergence of new technologies and materials. Therefore many ask question what blocks it is better for construction of the house as they enjoy the greatest popularity recently and at the high level compete with long ago known brick. Emergence of masonry raw materials of a new type has been caused generally by desire to accelerate process of construction and to reduce its labor input.
What blocks for construction stay at home: main types and characteristics
Larger, in comparison with brick, the sizes of masonry units give the chance several times quicker to make laying, and their rather small weight considerably facilitates work. This quality has given powerful impetus at implementation them on the market.
There are several classifications of blocks for construction. Depending on dimensions of product they can be separated into such groups: small-size and large-size. Products with small dimensions, low durability and conductivity of heat belong to the first group. The second group will be provided by products with big sizes and high rates of durability and also average insulating characteristics.
Better masonry units are classified by type of the material used for their production. The main component of all types steadily is concrete. Only minor materials and production technique vary.
Here it is possible to allocate the following groups:
- lightweight aggregate;
- polystyrene concrete;
- cinder concrete;
- wood concrete;
The defining characteristics and their influence on the choice of the consumer
Considering all types of blocks for construction are more detailed, it is necessary to stop on their main technical characteristics. It is density, heat conductivity, durability on compression, frost resistance. They are defining when choosing the necessary material. Relying on these parameters and the sizes, the correct calculation of number of blocks for construction of the house is made.
Always it is worth thinking over accurately all types of works as different blocks approach under specifically goals. It is necessary to be guided by certain course: there will be it just warming, partition or more massive load-carrying structure. To what type of construction this material will be applicable: capital construction in the form of, for example, house or garage, or simpler option of summer shower or farm building. And of course one more factor: how much are blocks for construction of the house.
Concrete blocks: utilization properties and scope of application
This type of blocks became very first on production line. It is very widespread in application, especially where high strength of building is required.
There is state standard in which the sizes of blocks for construction are accurately regulated. It gives the chance to unmistakably count expenses at construction of buildings. Above-mentioned brands can have the continuous building or longitudinal cuts intended for making of communications.
The most essential advantage of these types of blocks is ease of use. In most cases they are applicable for laying of the foundation. Thus, when using this technology it is possible to facilitate process considerably. It will not be required to fill in concrete, involving at the same time a lot of additional equipment, it is not necessary to wait time of its hardening to continue further works.
The price of concrete blocks of 390х190х188 mm in size, differing only in quantity of slots in the structure.
Lightweight aggregate blocks: properties, merits and demerits
At production of lightweight aggregate blocks as impurity use haydite. It represents the cellular material released in the form of granules by clay roasting. Such mix has given very unusual properties to new types of blocks thanks to which they have won due recognition at the consumer.
Varying amount of filler, as a result receive the block of different durability. It leads to expansion of range of use of this material. The most popular density – from 500 to 1800 kg/cm ³. The material is more dense, the it stronger also can be used for multi-storey buildings.
Construction of houses from lightweight aggregate blocks has number of merits. Buildings are not deformed, are not exposed to shrinkage, do not crack. The low cost of production is also plus. Availability in enough initial material and the low technological cost of production in general provide the maximum benefit from its use.
Pay attention! Just because production of lightweight aggregate blocks does not demand big material inputs, many try to make it independently. Non-compliance with some necessary norms gives at the exit low-quality material and discrepancy of the sizes of blocks for construction. Therefore buying these goods, it is necessary to make sure of good reputation of the producer.
This block also needs warming by finishing materials, and from outer end. It will give positive effect of increase in heat conductivity and also will increase construction operation term.
The price of lightweight aggregate blocks depends on their sizes and assignment.
The corpulent block has the most demanded sizes of 390х190х188 mm. Partition wall type of this type is most often provided in the amount of 390х90х188 mm.
Gas-silicate blocks and main criteria of their use
Construction of houses from gas-silicate blocks became very popular recently. Material, gas concrete, is produced from cement, unslaked lime, quartz sand and aluminum powder by autoclave method under the influence of certain temperatures and pressure. In the course of mixing of these components large amount of hydrogen is distinguished that when hardening gives to finished goods cellular structure.
Advantages and shortcomings of gas-silicate blocks
Merits of gas-silicate blocks following:
- they have small weight and therefore construction will be much easier, than, for example, brick. Such property gives the chance to reduce pressure upon the base. Means, directly skeleton it is possible to plan less capital that considerably saves means;
- low level of heat conductivity will provide more high temperature in internal rooms;
- variety of forms and the sizes does this material demanded. Without being limited on specific size ranges, producers expand consumption range. Also the design with additional dredging and dadojoints is rather popular;
- the large sizes of the gas-silicate block for construction of the house and their accurate equal edges considerably accelerate construction process;
- use of special glue mixes for laying which just get divorced water in certain proportion also saves time;
- gas-silicate thanks to the structure easily gives in to sawing up, processing, laying various groove;
- the high fire resistance is on the first place in safety issues.
Despite number of above-mentioned merits it is possible to allocate also several negative: the cellular structure of material gives not only pluses, but also minuses. It obviously lowers consistency value, level of compression and stretching. Therefore the maximum number of floors of such constructions should not exceed 2. Otherwise experiencing heavy load, the lower ranks will begin to collapse and shrink. Emergence of cracks is not excluded.
Pay attention! To increase durability of walls specialists recommend to carry out construction strengthening by steel reinforcing.
Construction of houses from gas-concrete blocks: advantages and shortcomings
As well as in case of use of gas-silicate blocks, construction from gas concrete begins with definition of what needs to be received as a result: main walls, partitions of two-storeyed array or warming of already existing constructions. Proceeding from objectives, just it is necessary to buy blocks for construction of the house of the necessary density. And also to take care of external finishing of walls. It has to provide not only acceptable exterior of the building, but also as much as possible reduce moisture absorption coefficient.
Gas-concrete blocks are made by autoclave method. They consist of cement, lime, plaster and aluminum powder. As well as in case with gas-silicate look, between the making components there is massive chemical reaction, hydrogen thanks to which the cellular structure of material turns out is as a result emitted.
After full hardening gas concrete cut on the necessary size blocks for construction of the house by means of string. Therefore the received result differs in ideal geometrically equal edges. It is important as at laying there will be very few gaps on seams that will provide additional percent of heat.
This type of blocks has one more attractive property. Thanks to special structure it is easily cut by normal saw. In such a way it is possible to correct quickly parameters and to receive the necessary size of gas-concrete block for construction of the house.
We pay attention to marking: key parameter of the choice
Gas-concrete blocks are very popular today. Numerous offers of manufacturers give opportunity to use this material not only for walls, but also for ceiling overlappings, crossing points for windows and doors. The big size range gives the chance to build all building from these blocks.
As well as on other types of blocks, gas-concrete articles can have mounting grooves for convenience of operation. Such connection will give the maximum docking and the necessary indicator of heat conductivity.
Choosing necessary material, pay attention to marking. It is designated by Latin letter D and digits standing after it. These digits specify block density. Thus D500-D900 brands which at the size of 600х250х200 mm weigh 18 kg are the most applicable and by that can replace 20 pieces of bricks.
Foam concrete: optimum ratio of the price and quality
The concrete block belongs to cellular types of construction materials. All their qualities are inherent in it. It from mix of concrete and foaming agent is made. Foam prepares in the special generator and then is filled in directly in cement. It envelops and by that closes all cells in structure. After mix gets to special cartridges and it is necessary to stiffen at natural ambient temperature. No special thermal impact on this material is made.
Pay attention! Foam concrete needs “to be stood” on average 28 days from the date of production finally to harden and receive necessary durability.
Many builders note the favorable price of blocks for construction of the house: any private developer can buy foam-concrete products. At the same time they give the chance to easily remove, for example, any figured arches or partitions.
By consideration of question of what blocks it is better for construction of the house: often compare gas concrete and foam concrete.
On this question there is no definite answer, however it should be taken into account several moments:
- gas-concrete blocks resemble sponge superficially. Their time cell is not closed, as a result they actively absorb and hold the moisture which has got to them. In this plan foam concrete blocks with the fully enclosed and concentrated only inside cells stand on more advantageous position;
- if still to impose the subzero temperature of the environment on the absorbed moisture, then we will receive unfavourable result for the gas-block: it will burst and shrink;
- at foam concrete smaller density, contains in it more cells which are filled with air. Therefore it keeps heat much better;
- for production of gas-concrete blocks more professional equipment is used that gives the chance to have the accurate sizes and the correct edges of products.
The foam-concrete block depending on the density in the most popular size of 600х300х200 mm. It is natural that material with high density has the highest price. If to increase at least one of dimensional parameters, for example, to 600х400х200 mm, then the price will be more.
What blocks to choose for construction of the house: advantages and shortcomings of polysterene concrete
This type of blocks rather has appeared recently in the market of construction materials. It on merit enjoys popularity at builders.
Its following characteristics are very important:
- low heat conductivity;
- sound insulation;
- frost resistance;
- ecological purity.
Process of production takes place as under production conditions, and in house. Mix from granules of polystyrene, cement, sand and additives for hardening is filled up in the concrete mixer in accurately certain sequence, mixed. Then fill in in in advance prepared forms for hardening approximately for day under natural conditions. In 24 hours blocks can be removed, accurately to spread out to plain surface before full drying.
All polystyrene concrete blocks can be separated into two views:
- with facing. They do not demand additional finishing of facade as one party can be executed in the form of stone, marble or granite. Important point is the lack of any additional glue structures. This layer of the facing party – part of concrete;
- normal blocks which are used for wall construction. The cost of blocks for construction of the house from polystyrene concrete is approximately twice less than brick cost.
Practically all negative sides of use of this type of material depend on correctness of its production. If blocks have been manufactured without accurate observance of rules, then the possibility of emergence of microcracks and shrinkage considerably increases.
Plus needs to be added to it special fibers that as a result there was strong product. If to save on these fibers, not really repaid block turns out. All this needs to be considered upon purchase.
Special qualities of slag and its application in cinder concrete industry
The product received after strong heat treatment of any raw materials is called slag. It represents alloy of oxides. When using slag for production of concrete blocks take material without any additional chemical compounds.
It is important to prepare slag for use correctly. It has to stay in bed about half a year under the open sky. It will give the chance to natural atmospheric precipitation to wash up from it residues of impurity of sulfur and lime. It will be good if several times to move it from place to place. Such action will also promote elimination of all unnecessary.
Production of slag concrete blocks takes place with use of slag sand (it gives additional density) and crushed stone (gives additional ease). In finished products about 2/3 cements and 1/3 limes plus necessary amount of slag.
At respect for all necessary norms and requirements, the price of blocks for construction of the house will be very acceptable. The good ratio the price quality turns out.
The main characteristics of these blocks its brand of durability and also density is considered.
Select the following brands:
- M10 – are used for warming;
- M25 and M35 – are suitable for construction of partitions of low bearing capacity;
- M50 and above – are used for the construction of load-bearing walls.
Pluses and minuses of breeze blocks
Advantages of breeze blocks before brick consist in rather lightweight. Smaller pressure upon the base and other load-carrying structures is created. Thereby the term of operation of buildings lasts. As well as other types of blocks, they considerably accelerate construction process, thanks to the sizes.
Minuses can be allocated at production phase: long time for preparation directly material, and long time for achievement of the necessary indicator of hardening. Only in month it reaches only 50% of this size. For full compliance it needs year.
The slag stones used for interroom partitions have the size of 390х90х190 mm. For constructions of different function use products of 390х240х190 mm in size, material has emptiness cameras. For objects with the raised loading use whole material of 390х190х190 mm in size. Slag stones with the same size and with the different number of cameras use for construction of external walls of residential buildings.
Environmentally friendly wood concrete blocks
Wood concrete blocks belong to group of wall blocks. They consist for 80% of wood. Invariable as a part of all blocks is cement and different chemical additives. For the correct production wood needs to be dried up, added well chemicals in order that processes in organic chemistry and for the best fastening between the main components have stopped.
Wood concrete can be produced in the form of blocks, plates, panels and solutions for filling of monolithic surfaces. All this can be used for creation of walls and warming.
They have number of advantages: the house heat-shielding, high sound-proof rates, environmentally friendly structure, have small weight and do not give heavy load on the base, lungs in processing and at construction of small formats can be applied without reinforcing.
Minuses of the considered blocks is need for obligatory facing as material in itself has not really nice appearance. It is always necessary to pay attention to the producer as at many wood processing plants were engaged in this type of works. As this process for them is not profile, and it is worth thinking of quality.
There is not a lot of features of mounting at wood concrete blocks. The laying is carried out in 1-1.5 blocks, the normal cement slurry is applied, it is possible to use armature at will. Experienced builders advise to make breaks for drying each 3 rows as blocks very easy.
This environmentally friendly material in the price occupies one of the highest positions.
Salt concrete blocks: whether it is worth being afraid?
Separate type of wood concrete blocks are salt concrete blocks. It is new type of products which is ideal for followers of environmentally friendly materials. Their production is not put widely yet, many are skeptical about it, however they already have the consumer.
At production of straw blocks it is important to consider quality of raw materials surely. Straw has to be, first, certain look, and, secondly, ideally dry. All further construction method depends on quality of drying. If material contains though the slightest percent of moisture, then it will not be possible to avoid rotting, blossoming, reproduction of harmful microorganisms.
Helpful advice! Such type of the block is used only for frame constructions. However many filled in chopped straw with cement, it all the same will remain soft construction material.
Nevertheless they have very long life cycle, and it is possible to buy straw blocks for construction at very democratic prices.
Construction of houses from ceramic blocks
This type of blocks is in own way interesting. Depending on the making substances of product it is possible to separate into two types: porous and not porous. Clay, waste of polyfoam and cellulose is part of representatives of the first group. Minor additives under the influence of temperature burn out, afterwards what there is microscopic time in structure of the ready block that provides big heat insulation.
Not porous blocks do not contain any additives. Therefore they it is heavier on weight and have smaller heat insulation. Both groups possess high rates of physics and technology characteristics. The good heatefficiency, sound insulation, ecological purity, simplicity in laying are also inherent in ceramic blocks.
They can be used for construction of multi-storey buildings, construction of interroom partitions, tasks are suitable for performance difficult architectural. The ceramics on the properties does not need additional facing, heat insulation and waterproofing. It considerably reduces the estimate of expenses, thanks to exception of it of many accessory materials.
Feature of laying of ceramic blocks is acquisition of special glue without fail. The cement slurry has very liquid consistence which will fill all time of the block and minimizes thereby its many useful qualities. And special glue at thickness only 2 cm is capable to provide durability of connection and not to do harm.
The second note which it is necessary to remember is use of bandaging of vertical joints grid from fiber glass fabric. It is laid through each 2 rows.
Construction of non-residential premises from blocks
Today construction from blocks not only premises, but also, for example, street storerooms, summer shower or garage is very popular.
Let’s consider briefly highlights of construction of the last. Most often building takes place by own forces. Therefore it is necessary to be defined at once what blocks it is better for construction of garage? Let’s note that in principle any kind approaches. It is necessary to evaluate everything pros and cons and to choose the option which is most acceptable for itself.
The garage from foam concrete block or the gas-block needs to be reinforced surely at construction. It will give the necessary density. Not to avoid also finishing of walls, and right after the end of construction. As the honeycomb will be gathered by moisture and to be exposed to frosts that will shortly cause set of problems.
At construction from slag stones or clay blocks of action it is a little others. Here do not use armopoyas, and spread just upper row openings up. Afterwards these emptiness fill with crushed stone or concrete. Thus the strengthened concreted design turns out.
In all cases pay special attention to socle. The most correct will be several first rows to lay out from strong red brick. Bit different option: already exposed timbering is filled in with concrete.
Pay attention! Before building always estimate quality of soil. After assessment of the soil choose the correct option of the base.
Construction of bath from blocks: short management
Construction of bath from concrete blocks is good alternative to wooden constructions. Considering specific features of the building, select the correct type of products.
The most applicable foam-concrete and gas-concrete blocks with the cellular structure will strongly absorb moisture. Therefore it is necessary to carry out not small financial and labor expenses on the strengthened waterproofing of walls on both sides.
Finishing of block walls is made from two parties. Outside apply wood furring in which cells stack layers of heat insulation, vapor barrier and waterproofing. As bath – the place of the maximum moisture formation, it is worth thinking over options of slag stone or clay blocks.
Construction begins with the base. It is favorable to apply at the same time tape monolithic concrete blocks which keep within on pillow from crushed stone and sand. On the base the roofing material layer prostrates. He will act as the hydroinsulator.
Having been defined what blocks it is better for construction of bath, carry out their laying by ranks with obligatory coordination. Here it is the best of all to use special glue solution. It will give the chance to keep warmly. Laying by width in the half-block which is quite favorable in economy is most extended.
After wall construction it is necessary to think of high-quality strengthening of roof. For strengthening of fixing systems use special beam which fastens to block wall by means of metal pins or anchors. It will give the chance to block wall to sustain the strengthened loading.
What blocks it is better for construction of the house: correct calculation of material
At construction of any room it is necessary to select blocks according to several criteria:
- to define the type which is most suitable on characteristics;
- quality of material;
- justified and economic price.
Considering what it is better blocks for construction of the house, the price plays them not the last role. Having picked up the correct quality material, any builder to aim to make the matter by the most favorable in the material plan. The cost of blocks is influenced directly by the sizes of blocks for construction.
Here acquaintance to prices of firms suppliers and, of course, the correct calculation of necessary amount of material which can be carried out by means of the online calculator will come to the rescue. Calculation of blocks on construction of the house in this case will be correct and correct. For this purpose it is necessary to enter the parameters demanded by the program.
It is possible to make calculations independently, using this formula:
- V = (R x H x L) — S1 — S2
Where P – perimeter of the basis, H – height of walls, L – thickness of walls, S1 – the area of door openings, S2 – the area of window openings.
Using this formula it is possible to calculate the necessary volume of blocks. Having divided this volume into the volume of one structural element it is possible to learn the necessary amount of material easily.
In construction of brick houses and blocks it is at the same time necessary to consider amount of both materials separately. Having carried out all necessary calculations, it is possible to buy without problems blocks for construction of the house.
Follows from all above-mentioned that for receiving high-quality construction it is necessary to decide correctly on the required material, to competently calculate its quantity and not to lose with the price. It is necessary to consider that each type of the block has the pluses and minuses. It is better than the specific answer to question, what option, cannot be. Everything is defined by specifics of construction and its assignment.